Saturday, May 11, 2013

Androgen Threesome: BPA Exposure & Free Testosterone in Men. TRT Good For the Prostate. DHT, Allopecia (Hair Loss) & Monascus Fermentation. Plus: Mycotoxins in GCB Supps

Coffee and green coffee bean extracts are by no means the only way by which you are exposed to mycotoxins. Corn, for example, is likewise a favorite for the toxic mold. The same goes for almost all other grains. Common routes of exposure are, amongst others cereals, breads, wines, and even mils and meats (of swine ad turkey, not chicken; Duarte. 2010)
36%, 32%, 10%, and 16% these are the SuppVersity Figures of the week and the percentages of green coffee bean supplements (remember the chlorogenic acid news in Thursday's installment of the Science Round-Up) that were contaminated with Ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, fumonisin B1 and mycophenolic acid, respectively.
"Mycotoxins occurred in the following concentration ranges: ochratoxin A: 2.7–136.9 µg/kg, ochratoxin B: 3.5–20.2 µg/kg, fumonisin B1: 110.0–415.0 µg/kg, mycophenolic acid: 43.1–395.0 µg/kg." (Vaclavi. 2013)
These poisonous substances are produced by fungi that form during (inproper) storage and are suspected to inhibit protein synthesis, damage macrophage systems, inhibit particle clearance of the lung, and increase sensitivity to bacterial endotoxins... ah, I almost forgot ochratoxins also wreak havoc on your hormones (Frizzell. 2013).

So far for the bad news, now the good one: According to the researchers calculations even with most contaminated of the 50 products they the average consumer who adheres to the suggested dosing protocol will still be well within the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 120 ng/kg body weight per week and tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2000 ng/kg body weight per day for ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1, respectively (these values were estimated by the EU Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) - corresponding values of the "well-meaning" FDA or any other US government agencies are - as usual - not available).

Let's get to our androgen threesome

  • SuppVersity readers know: Tea is not only good for your prostate (learn more), it can also help you lose weight (read more)
    Testosterone replacement improves prostate issues (Ko. 2013) -- Contrary to what common "wisdom" will tell you scientists from the Yeungnam University College of Medicine in Korea can tell you that the 17 out of  46 patients who suffered from lower urinary tract symptom before they underwent TRT using intramuscular injection of 3 months bases injection of testosterone 1,000 mg undecanoate over a year achieved significant improvements (decrements) on the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS).

    Needless to say that "[d]uring the median follow up of 15.1 months, no patients experienced urinary retention, BPH-related surgery, or admission for urinary tract infection".
  • BPA and low testosterone, you better know what to look at (Zhou. 2013) -- Talking about testosterone, there is finally some relatively reliable human data on the effects of BPA exposure on the hormone levels in men.
    Figure 1: Relative difference in free androgen index (FAI), androstenedione (AD), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, inhibin (INB), prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen (E2) an total testosterone (T);  comparing the men with to the men without workplace exposure in the Zhou study
    As you can see in figure 1 the effects would go unnoticed, if you do not test for free hormones, but just checked the amount of total testosterone. How you can recognize that from the data? Well, the figures above the bars are the p-values. All that are >0.5 would suggest that this effect is statistically non-significant, so that every study not looking at things like the free androgen index (FAI) or the free testosterone levels (FT) will miss the 15% and 10% reduced levels of the latter and conclude: That it does not make a difference, if your serum contains 3.198 or 0.276mg/L as it was the case in the exposed and non-exposed subjects in this study from the Shanxi Medical University, because BPA won't harm you anyway.
  • The fermented solution to all problems androgen?  (Chiu. 2013) Monascus bacteria that is used to ferment red mold rice, a traditional spice that is consumed throughout Asia could prevent androgenetic alopecia, benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer.
    Figure 2: Changes in testosterone an DHT mice on TRT (control) w/w-out 0.2 & 0.5% Monascus extract in chow, corresponding images of the stained slices from the prostate and hair loss compared to standard treatment with finasteride (Chiu. 2013)
    The results of a recent study from the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health at the National Cheng Kung University Medical College clearly suggest that the way in which a monascus extract suppressed baldness in male B6CBAF1/j mice 
      Learn how to modulate DHT/T naturally.
    • decreased PSA levels  
    The effect was dose-dependent and was observed with 0.5-3% of the extract in the rodent diets. While it is not unlikely that the results will translate into human studies, it should be obvious that at least for the >0.5% doses, supplementation will be necessary.

    Irrespective of these latest study results, previous research indicates that Monascus-fermented products have many functional secondary metabolites, including monacolin K, citrinin, ankaflavin, and monascin and these have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, cholesterol-lowering effect, and antitumor activities. Probably all of you will be familiar with at least one of them: Red Yeast Rice, the natural statin. And if you are not into spices or extracts, there are also other foods and even wines that are fermented with Monascus.

That's it for today: I know ladies, with today's focus on the male hormones, I owe you (big time?). But don't worry, there are also a couple of Facebook News, you may be interested in
  • Suggested read: "Carbohydrate Shortage in Paleo Land" (read more)
    "Oldie but goldie: T3, rt3 and carbohydrate intake in hyper- and eucaloric scenarios - Something worth considering for those constantly battling low T3 an high rT3 levels (read more)
  • Omnipresence of "healthy" Subway sandwiches correlates w/ obesity rates - "Countries with the highest density of Subway restaurants such as the USA (7.52 per 100,000) and Canada (7.43 per 100,000) also tend to have a higher prevalence of obesity in both men (31.3% and 23.2%, respectively) and women (33.2% and 22.9%, respectively)." (read more)
  • Understanding the neurological side effects of statin drugs - US scientists observed unusual swellings within neurons, which the team has termed the "beads-on-a-string" effect (read more)
  • DHEA supplementation at 25gm/day to restore female fertility - A recent study from Turkey would suggest that this could actually work (read more)
If that's still not enough, come back tomorrow for another serving of the latest news from the realms of exercise, nutrition and health sciences, here at the SuppVersity! In the mean time, enjoy your weekend, everone!
References:
  • Chiu HW, Chen MH, Fang WH, Hung CM, Chen YL, Wu MD, Yuan GF, Wu MJ, Wang YJ. Preventive effects of monascus on androgen-related diseases: androgenetic alopecia, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 May 8;61(18):4379-86.  
  • Duarte SC, Pena A, Lino CM. Ochratoxin a in Portugal: a review to assess human exposure. Toxins (Basel). 2010 Jun;2(6):1225-49. doi: 10.3390/toxins2061225. Epub 2010 Jun 1. Review. 
  • Frizzell C, Verhaegen S, Ropstad E, Elliott CT, Connolly L. Endocrine disrupting effects of ochratoxin A at the level of nuclear receptor activation and steroidogenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Mar 13;217(3):243-50.  
  • Ko YH, Moon du G, Moon KH. Testosterone replacement alone for testosterone deficiency syndrome improves moderate lower urinary tract symptoms: one year follow-up. World J Mens Health. 2013 Apr;31(1):47-52.
  • Vaclavik L, Vaclavikova M, Begley TH, Krynitsky AJ, Rader JI. Determination of Multiple Mycotoxins in Dietary Supplements Containing Green Coffee Bean Extracts Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. May 2013 [ahead of print].
  • Zhou Q, Miao M, Ran M, Ding L, Bai L, Wu T, Yuan W, Gao E, Wang J, Li G, Li DK. Serum bisphenol-A concentration and sex hormone levels in men. Fertil Steril. 2013 May 4.

7 comments:

  1. I've noticed that I feel better when I eat more carbs and less fat. Is this related to the T3 levels? I have been told in the past that I am 'close' to hypothyroid. I wonder if this is why I felt like garbage on a paleo diet?

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    1. It could relate to T3, especially if you are borderline hypo. But it could also be that carbs are needed in the production of serotonin and other "feel-good" neurotransmitters.

      If you are very lean and athletic, then you have great insulin sensitivity, which is a potential third reason. And finally, perhaps you were just suffering from low-carb flu on the paleo diet.

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    2. ^ point for what Primalkid says: If you are not as fat and sedentary as your obese neighbor, chances you will thrive on a different type of diet.

      A high amount medium to high volume training as it is common in the fitness scene requires some readily available fuel and (I will repeat this ever and ever again) - studies showing that keto-genic diets provide enough fuel for athletes cannot be translated to low carb diets that are abundant in protein and will thus hamper the generation of ketone bodies... your body will always be trying to satisfy his energy demands by gluconeogenesis from proteins first in this scenario and that is simply insufficient if you're a serious trainee..

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  2. re: Testosterone replacement improves prostate issues. Is the dose right? Normaly in TRT 1000mg of testosterone undecanoate is injected every 10 - 12 weeks. WBR Juha

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    Replies
    1. right, typo in the abstract - just checked the full-text it should read 1,000mg... will correct that. Thank you!

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  3. Dear Adel,

    Regarding the Red Yeast Rice consumption and decreased DHT levels.

    Is there anyway to determine from the study, how much Red Yeast Rice extract to consume to mirror the DHT decreasing effects of say a daily dose of 5mg of Finasteride?

    I have searched Red Yeast Rice extracts and found http://www.nowfoods.com/Supplements/Products-by-Category/Cholesterol-Cardiovascular-Support/M012846.htm if I was to purchase this for example.

    Thanks in advance. If you are unable to answer I appreciate you taking your time to read my question :-)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. no, also RYR is a statin and I am not sure if it's side effect free (in terms of muscular sides); not necessarily advised to take large amounts of it

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