|If lean muscle if your goal, high protein bulking is the way. That's what bro-science that's just been confirmed by pro-science - w/ non-lifting young, lean men.|
Being based on a peer-reviewed study from the Wageningen University in the Netherlands, the results of the study at hand are (almost) beyond doubt.
The study design is simple and easy to explain. Annemarie Rietman and colleagues recruited twenty-nine healthy, young, lean Caucasian men and women participated in this strictly controlled dietary intervention study. Participants had no family history of type 2 diabetes and were not taking any medication. The total dietary intervention lasted for 6 weeks. All participants started with a 2-week run-in period on a weight-maintaining CD (27.8 En% fat, 16.9 En% protein, 55.3 En% carbohydrates) to get familiarized with the dietary regimen and to adapt to the same diet.
After the run-in, participants in the high energy intake (HD) group were overfed with 2 MJ/d, i.e. 477.69kcal/day, for the following 4 wk of intervention. The corresponding macros were
- normal protein: 15.4% protein | 39.4% fat | 45.2% carbohydrates
- high protein: 25.7% protein | 37.7% fat | 36.6% carbohydrates
The diets of the participants were (according to the scienceists) "strictly controlled" (Rietman. 2014) during the entire 6-wk study period. In that the diet was composed of an identical 90% baseline to cover their basic needs and a 10% extra they could select from a predefined free-choice list. Moreover, ...
"Participants started randomly with either the NP condition or the HP condition and crossed to the other condition after 2 wk. Parallel to the HD group, the reference group continued on the weight-maintaining CD for another 4 wk.
Suggested Read: "If You Go "High Carb", You Better Go Really High! 800g+ of Carbs @ 1000kcal Over Maintenance and Still "Lean Gains"! " | read more
Measurements of IHL content and fasting blood glucose, insulin, and TG concentrations were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2).
Body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured after each intervention period.
All measurements were performed after an overnight fast at the research facilities of Wageningen University." (Rietman. 2014)
- all food items chosen from the free-choice list were recorded. Participants came to the research facility every working day during lunchtime
- they consumed a hot meal, which was weighed to the nearest gram by the research dieticians,
- breakfast, evening bread meals, snacks, beverages, and all meals for the weekends were provided in take-home packages,
- all the foods were precalculated for macronutrient composition and energy content for each individual participant by the research dieticians
Suggested read: "Calorie Shifting (-45%) Beats Calorie Reduction (-55%)" | more
- dietary compliance was assessed by completion of a diary by the participants, return of emptied food packages, and measurement of 24-h urine urea concentration by kinetic UV assay,
- physical activity was controlled through a regular check by the dieticians, who informed participants about the allowed physical activity
|Yes, even protein can make you fat (learn more)|
Diet and physical activity levels are is yet not the only difference between the studies. The outcome measures were different as well: The triglyceride and intra-hepatic fat levels, indicators of beginning non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and thus, as you as a SuppVersity reader know, impeding insulin resistance (learn more) you can see in Figure 2 tell you provide insights into the overall metabolic health of the subject, the previously cited study did not have to offer.
|Figure 2: Intrahepatic lipid levels (left) and serum triglycerides (right); data are means +/- SEM (Rietman. 2014)|
- Martínez, J., Nieto, G. and Ros, G. (2014), Total antioxidant capacity of meat and meat products consumed in a reference ‘Spanish standard diet’. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.12577
- Rietman, et al. "Increasing Protein Intake Modulates Lipid Metabolism in Healthy Young Men and Women Consuming a High-Fat Hypercaloric Diet". J. Nutr. August 1, 2014 jn.114.191072.