|Cottage cheese is a good source of extra protein - 11-12g/100g|
But let's not get off track, here. The twenty-nine healthy, young, lean Caucasian men and women in the study at hand were after all not "rabbit starved".
Rather than that, the subjects of one of the latest studies from the Wageningen University in the Netherlands underwent a 6-week dietary intervention that began with a 2-wk run-in period on a weight-maintaining CD (27.8 en% fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates) that should help the subjects to familiarize with the diet.
Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either the HD group (n= 19) or the CD reference group (n= 10). The subjects in the HD group were overfed with 2 MJ/d for the following 4 wk of intervention; within the HD group, a randomized crossover design consisting of 2 periods of 2 wk was applied:
- 2-wk High Protein (HP) intervention - protein content 25.7 en% 220g/day
- 2-wk Normal Protein (LP) intervention - protein content 15.4 en%,123g/day
- the intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) as marker of NAFLD,
- the fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentration as diabesity markers,
- body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, and resting energy expenditure (REE)
Highly standardized meals: During the entire 6-wk study period, participants consumed foods covering 90% of their designated needs. The remaining 10% had to be selected from a predefined free-choice list. All food items chosen from the free-choice list were recorded. Participants came to the research facility every working day during lunchtime. They consumed a hot meal, which was weighed to the nearest gram by the research dieticians. Breakfast, evening bread meals, snacks, beverages, and all meals for the weekends were provided in take-home packages. Participants were carefully instructed how to prepare the take-home meals.The body weight was measured two times per week on a calibrated scale. During the run-in period, energy intake was adjusted in case of weight change. The contribution of SFAs was kept at;10 en%, as dietary guidelines recommend, and accounted for 9.5 en% in the CD and 11.5 en% in the HD in both the HP and NP conditions. Dietary compliance was assessed by completion of a diary by the participants, return of emptied food packages, and measurement of 24-h urine urea concentration by kinetic UV assay.
|Figure 1: Rel. changes (% of baseline) in triglycerides, intra-hepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight (left); lean mass vs. fat mass comparison after high (HP) vs. normal protein (NP) +478kcal "bulk" (Rietmann. 2014)|
- Rietmann, et al. Increasing Protein Intake Modulates Lipid Metabolism in Healthy Young Men and Women Consuming a High-Fat Hypercaloric Diet. J. Nutr. August 1, 2014 jn.114.19107.
- Speth JD, Spielmann KA. Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. J Anthropol Archaeol 1983; 2:1–31