|Asian foods are low in SFAs. So the researchers had to add it to the pan.|
Obviously you haven't read my previous article on the fallacies of adding fat to glucose in the false believe that the reduced digestive speed would reduce the post-prandial insulin spike ("True or False? Adding Fat to A Carby Meal Lowers Insulin Response." | read more) - a highly suggested read you may want to read either, before or after you devour today's SuppVersity article.
Don't worry, today's article still has something new to offer. While the previously reported data dealt with acute responses to high(er) fat meals, Itoh et al. (2014) whose study is available as an "ahead of print paper" on the website of Nutrition Research, looked at the effects of sub-chronic, not acute high saturated fat intakes.
|Figure 1: Graphical overview of the procedure (Itoh. 2014)|
|Muscular glucose uptake will be significantly reduced whenever free fatty acids are present in sign. amounts (Nuutila. 1992)|
In the end that's a physiologically sane reaction we developed in the days and age, where our meals were either high in fat or high in carbohydrates. In these days, however, it is one of the major obstacles to staying diabetes-free. An obstacle, however, the average healthy fitness enthusiast doesn't really have to worry about, if he works out regularly and does not live on twinkies & dingongs exclusively.
- in the high saturated fatty acid meal (FB-30): S/M/P, 5:4:1;
- in reduced saturated fatty acid meal (F-30): S/M/P, 3:4:3
|Figure 2: Comparison of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels after the control, F-30, and FB-30 meals (Itoh. 2014)|
The GIP response, i.e. the response of the non-satiating non-fat burning insulin release triggering brother of GLP-1 (learn more) that does neither reduce hunger, not appetite nor improve glucose control (increased amount of insulin used to store away the same amount of glucose; cf. Edholm. 2010), after the FB-30 was higher than that after the F-30 (P< .05).
"In addition, the difference in the incremental GIP between FB-30 and F-30 correlated significantly and positively with that of the insulin." (Itoh. 2014)The scientists believe that their results clearly prove, what scientists have believed for quite some time, now: "a high saturated fatty acid content stimulates postprandial insulin release via increased GIP secretion." (Itoh. 2014)
- Boden, Guenther, et al. "Mechanisms of fatty acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake." Journal of Clinical Investigation 93.6 (1994): 2438.
- Edholm, T., et al. "Differential incretin effects of GIP and GLP‐1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and insulin‐glucose homeostasis." Neurogastroenterology & Motility 22.11 (2010): 1191-e315.
- Itoh, Kazue, et al. "High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals." Nutrition Research (2014).
- Nuutila, P., et al. "Glucose-free fatty acid cycle operates in human heart and skeletal muscle in vivo." Journal of Clinical Investigation 89.6 (1992): 1767.
- Roden, Michael, et al. "Mechanism of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans." Journal of Clinical Investigation 97.12 (1996): 2859.