Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Cannot Control Your Appetite? Try to Eat Sign. More High Calcium Foods - The Reductions in Appetite, Insulin, GIP and Energy Intake Will Propel Your Fat Loss Efforts

One serving of most commercial micellar casein products contains 400mg of highly bioavailable calcium. 
As a SuppVersity reader you won't be surprised to hear that Gonzalez et al. found that the addition of calcium to a meal suppresses appetite and reduces the energy intake on a subsequent meal. The fact that the latest study from the Northumbria University still made the SuppVersity news is not the appetite reducing effect per se.

The reason Gonzales et al.'s study made the cut is that it was the first study to assess the joint and individual effects of protein and calcium in a preload on subsequent compensation of energy intake while assessing both subjective and objective measures of appetite.
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More specifically, the scientists recruited 20 normal and overweight subjects (12 men and 8 women | BMI between 18.5 and 29.9 kg/m²) who arrived at the laboratory for each of the actual testing sessions after an overnight fast.
Table 1: Nutritional composition of preloads | CAL, high-calcium preload; CON, low-calcium and lowprotein control preload; PRO, high-protein preload; PROCAL, high-protein and highcalcium preload (Gonzalez. 2015).
"An intravenous catheter was inserted into an antecubital vein and, after a baseline blood sample and visual analog scale (VAS), participants consumed one of 4 preloads (CON, PRO, CAL, or PROCAL). A timer was started when participants consumed the first mouthful of the preload, after which blood samples and a VAS were taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-preload. Food intake was then assessed (60 min after preload ingestion) by providing participants with a homogenous pasta meal, which they were asked to consume until "comfortably full." 
The mass of food consumed was then converted into energy intake taking into account water losses from reheating. The time frame after the preload was based on our previous findings in which appetite sensations after a high-calcium breakfast were divergent within the first 60 min of the postprandial period (Gonzalez. 2013 & 2014). Participants were initially served a subserving of the whole portion, which was augmented at regular intervals. This method prevents participants from feeling overwhelmed by a whole, large portion of pasta while never allowing the serving bowl to be empty, thus preventing participants from stopping eating because they reached the end of a ‘‘portion.’
All preloads contained instant porridge oats (Oatso Simple Golden Syrup, Quaker Oats UK) and water to provide 0.5 g carbohydrate/kg body mass. These were cooked in a microwave for 2 min at 1000 W and cooled for 5 min before being served.
  • For CAL trials, a milk-extracted calcium powder [Capolac, Arla Foods Ingredients; from the same batch that was validated independently previously (18)] was added to the porridge to increase the calcium content by 15 mg/kg body mass. 
  • For PRO trials, milk protein concentrate (MyProtein.co.uk) was added to increase the protein content of the porridge by 0.35 g/kg body mass.
To test the synergy of protein and calcium, the PROCAL was composed of the addition of protein and calcium in identical absolute quantities to the PRO and CAL trials (Table 1). The calcium concentration of the drinking water used to make the porridge was determined in duplicate with the use of a photometric technique (Modular P, Roche Diagnostics). This was determined as 0.82 +/- 0.01 mmol/L (given an atomic mass of 40.078 g/mol, this equates to 3.27 +/- 0.03 mg/dL) and was taken into account in the calcium content of the preloads (Table 1).
Figure 1: Appetite scores and energy compensation =""less energy intake relative to the energy in the preload" and thus probably a lower total food intake in a real world scenario (Gonzalez. 2015).
All the effort was obviously worth it: The results in Figure 1 are interesting... to say the least. As you can see, the energy intake after the PROCAL (3419 +/- 345 kJ; P < 0.05) was significantly less than after the CON (4126 6 +/- 395 kJ), but not after the PRO (3699 +/- 304 kJ; P > 0.05) or CAL (3501 +/- 253 kJ; P > 0.05). More importantly, however, the energy compensation was significantly greater (overcompensation) with the CAL vs. the PRO (P < 0.01) (Figure 1) and tended to be greater with the PROCAL vs. the PRO (P = 0.06).
Figure 2: Plasma insulin (left), GIP1–42 (right) postprandial time-averaged (60 min) AUCs after CONs, PROs, CALs, or PROCALs consumed by healthy adults (Gonzalez. 2015).
The latter is significant, since a higher over-compensation (in this study) was defined as "less energy intake relative to the energy in the preload" (Gonzalez. 2015) and does thus signify a greater usefulness during dieting. An effect that can easily be explained by the low insulin and GIP and levels the scientists observed in the CAL trial (Figure 2).
Read the previous SuppVersity Classic on the fat loss benefits of calcium: Higher Calcium Intake Greater Fatty Acid Oxidation!? True: Chronic & Acute Effect Size Comparable to Caffeine | read the full article
Bottom line: Overall, the study results do thus confirm that it's the calcium content and not, as scientists have previously suspected the high protein content of many high calcium foods that affects the appetite and - more importantly - leads to relatively lower food intakes on subsequent meal. This effect is - that's at least what the hormonal response would suggest - mediated by reduced insulin and GIP responses to the high calcium meals and coincides with the subjective appetite response of the subjects. In addition it may be amplified by delayed gastric emptying (Shafer. 1985), and changes in other gastrointestinal hormones such as cholecystokinin (Nakajima. 2012), peptide YY (Mace.2012), and gastrin (Behar. 1977) as they have been observed in previous studies on high calcium foods.

Practically speaking, a higher calcium intake will thus help you to stick to your diet with higher protein intakes having no significant additive, but no inhibitory effect either | Comment on Facebook!
  • Behar, J., M. Hitchings, and R. D. Smyth. "Calcium stimulation of gastrin and gastric acid secretion: effect of small doses of calcium carbonate." Gut 18.6 (1977): 442-448.
  • Gonzalez, Javier T., Penny LS Rumbold, and Emma J. Stevenson. "Appetite sensations and substrate metabolism at rest, during exercise, and recovery: impact of a high-calcium meal." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 38.12 (2013): 1260-1267.
  • Gonzalez, Javier T., and Emma J. Stevenson. "Calcium co-ingestion augments postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide1–42, glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin concentrations in humans." European journal of nutrition 53.2 (2014): 375-385.
  • Gonzalez, Javier T., et al. "Calcium Ingestion Suppresses Appetite and Produces Acute Overcompensation of Energy Intake Independent of Protein in Healthy Adults." The Journal of Nutrition (2015): jn-114.
  • Mace, Oliver J., Marcus Schindler, and Sonal Patel. "The regulation of K‐and L‐cell activity by GLUT2 and the calcium‐sensing receptor CasR in rat small intestine." The Journal of physiology 590.12 (2012): 2917-2936.
  • Nakajima, Shingo, Tohru Hira, and Hiroshi Hara. "Calcium‐sensing receptor mediates dietary peptide‐induced CCK secretion in enteroendocrine STC‐1 cells." Molecular nutrition & food research 56.5 (2012): 753-760.
  • Shafer, R. B., et al. "Do calories, osmolality, or calcium determine gastric emptying?." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 248.4 (1985): R479-R483.