|Visible abs require low subcutaneous, not visceral fat levels: Why? Well, despite being located at the midsection, the nasty fat covering your abs is subcutaneous.|
In that, the scientists speculated that due to the increased energy expenditure the 13 women who had been randomly assigned to the 3-4 sessions per week group should lose significantly more subc. and visceral fat than their pendants who went to the gym only 1-2 times per week.
During the complete study period subjects were advised to cut their energy intake by 200kcal/day and perform 30 min of medium-intensity cardio at 50-60% of their individual maximal heart rate reserve (0.5≈0.6 [maximal pulse resting pulse] + resting pulse) as calculated from a maximal exercise test. With the same baseline dietary deficit, the 3-4SW group would thus have a significantly more pronounced weekly caloric deficit than the 1-2SW group if all subjects stuck to their diets and their otherwise sedentary lifestyle.
|Energy deficit - contribution of exercise vs. diet (Abe. 1997).|
|Figure 1: Changes in subc. and visceral fat over the course of the 13-wk study period (Abe. 1997).|
Despres et al. (1985) for example found almost 2x higher rates of trunk fat vs. extremity fat loss in young men who lost 2.6kg of body fat over the course of a a 20 wk aerobic exercise training program. Likewise in contrast to the results of the study at hand, a 9 to 12 month aerobic exercise training program on sedentary older men and women, that was conducted by scientists from the Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis showed a significantly greater reduction of upper trunk vs. extremityfat. (Kohrt. 1992).
- Abe, T., et al. "Relationship between training frequency and subcutaneous and visceral fat in women." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 29.12 (1997): 1549-1553.Després, J. P., et al. "Effects of aerobic training on fat distribution in male subjects." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 17.1 (1985): 113.
- Kohrt, Wendy M., Kathleen A. Obert, and John O. Holloszy. "Exercise training improves fat distribution patterns in 60-to 70-year-old men and women." Journal of gerontology 47.4 (1992): M99-M105.
- Slentz, Cris A., et al. "Inactivity, exercise, and visceral fat. STRRIDE: a randomized, controlled study of exercise intensity and amount." Journal of Applied Physiology 99.4 (2005): 1613-1618.
- Treuth, MARGARITA S., et al. "Reduction in intra-abdominal adipose tissue after strength training in older women." Journal of Applied Physiology 78.4 (1995): 1425-1431.