|After your workout, whey protein is fine. With a low carb + high fat breakfast, though, it may ruin the satiety inducing effects of the high fat + low CHO meal.|
I think this was a long enough preface. So, let's not waste anymore time, but rather dig into the papers I've found in the latest regular and special edition(s) [some are pre-release abstracts] of the scientific journal Appetite:
- Distraction during eating increases later snacking and reduced meal memory (Higgs. 2015) - It is not actually surprising, but still interesting. If you are distracted by talking or watching TV or whatever else while you're eating this will have direct effects on your ability to recall what you've eaten and your snack choices (i.e. snacking vs. non-snacking).
Figure 1: Mean snack (buiscits) when subjects were either focused on the meal or distracted (Higgs. 2015).
Needless to say that focusing your attention on the actual eating process and the food you eat will decreased later snacking.
- Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children (Fearnbach. 2015) - Eventually the results of this study from the Pennsylvania State University just confirm what we already know. People and in this case kids who tent do overeat are more likely to be obese.
Figure 2: The fatter the kids are the more palatable foods are consumed at the buffet (Fernback. 2015).
- Differential effect of fat and carbohydrate composition meals on food hedonics, satiation and satiety - The results of this investigation go against the current trend toward low carb diets, after all, Finlayson et al. clearly found that
"When consumed in controlled amounts, LFHC [low fat high carb] meals induce a greater satiety (SQ) compared to isoenergetic HFLC [high fat low carb] meals. HFLC meals do not dampen the subsequent appeal bias for HFLC foods compared to matched LFHC meals" (Finlayson. 2015).What I personally find extra-surprising is that the study was conducted on forty-five overweight and obese adults who were studied on 2 separate days in which they were given access to HFLC or LFHC meals. Usually, overweight and obese people are the ones who best respond to low carb diets.
You're having problems controlling your appetite? Try eating with ear-plugs! Study from the University of Surrey in the UK shows (): When young, normal-weight individuals eat a standardized meal (606 kcal, 37 g protein, 85 g carbohydrates, 12 g fat) wearing ear-plugs, this boosts their perceived hunger (p = 0.029) and perceived fullness (p = 0.032).
- Habitual high-fat consumers are not more susceptible to weight gain when exposed to increased portion sizes in a free-living setting (Dalton. 2005) - That's at least what the NIH worksite study suggests. In said study, two hundred thirty-three adults (67.7% women; age 42.6 ± 11.2; BMI 29.8 ± 6.4) were randomly allocated to one of four lunch size groups (400 kcal, 800 kcal, 1600 kcal, and no lunch control) for 6 months. Body weight and energy intake (assessed using 24 hr dietary recalls) were measured at baseline, and Months 1, 3 and 6. Of the 233 subjects, 75 were HF-C (40.2%E fat, SD: 3.0) and 74 were LF-C (26.6%E fat, SD: 3.2).
Previous research from overfeeding studies yielded slightly different results with a minimal disadvantage for high fat intake | learn more
- Fiber-enriched (inulin) squash smoothie decreases ad-libitum food intake in subsequent meal (Slevin. 2015) - Now the fact that the BMI-adjusted (thus g/kg/m²) preload drink, which contained 0.67 g/kg/m² inulin, 0.67 g/kg/m² squash and 8.89 g/kg/m² water the 12 normal weight and 12 obese women consumed 30 min before going to a buffet for lunch did decrease the ad libitum intake (219.7 kcal, p = 0.008; 101.6 g, p = 0.032) and total food intake (187.9 kcal; p = 0.019; 102.3 g, p = 0.033) is not surprising. The fact that it did so only in the obese women, but not in the normal-weight subjects, on the other hand may be considered a surprise-
Figure 3: The more different food items the subjects selected, the more they eat (exact numbers for the different food items were not mentioned in the abstract that is currently available | Slevin. 2015)
- Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women (Stenblom. 2015) - Thylakoids are contained in green-plant membranes like those of spinach (5g/100g spinach) and have been shown to reduce feelings of hunger as well as cravings for palatable food in human participants, during diet intervention and simultaneous weight loss in overweight women (Montelius. 2014M Stenblom. 2013 & 2014). What still had to be confirmed, though, is that these beneficial effects also affect the intake of such foods.
Figure 4: Intake from snack buffet. The effect size is too low to trigger weightloss wonders (Stenblom. 2015).
If you believe in food addiction you will never lose weight! Ok, ok. That's not what a recent study from the Universities of Liverpool and Bristol (Hardman. 2015) shows, but it does confirm that if you are made believe that food addiction is real by bogus articles like the subjects in that study you are (a) more likely to self-diagnose yourself with "food addiction" and will (b) be more susceptible to binging on indulgent foods.
- Whey is not always appetite suppressing! Addition of whey protein to a fat-based breakfast has detrimental effects on satiety following subsequent feeding (Allerton. 2015) - You, as a SuppVersity reader know: Previous studies have shown that whey protein consumed either before or alongside a meal will make the latter more satiating. What you probably didn't know (I didn't but maybe suspected it) is the fact that this is only the case if the meal is not a low-carb meal.
In their latest study, scientists from the Northumbria University in Newcastle upon Tyne found that healthy males (age 24 ± 2 years, mass 79.7 ± 3.8 kg, BMI 24.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2) consume significantly more of a pasta-based lunch meal (3427 kJ; 49%, 37%, 14% energy from carbohydrate, fat, protein) that was served 180 minutes after a fat-based breakfast if the latter contained 20g of whey protein (FAT + WP) than after a "whey protein free" breakfast. In addition, the ...
10+ Things You Probably Didn't Know Whey & Peptides That Form During its Digestion Can Do | more
- Allerton, et al. "Addition of whey protein to a fat-based breakfast has detrimental effects on satiety following subsequent feeding." Appetite 91 (2015).
- Clayton, et al. "Effect of breakfast omission on subjective appetite, metabolism, acylated ghrelin and active GLP-1." Appetite 91 (2015).
- Dalton, et al. "Habitual high-fat consumers are not more susceptible to weight gain when exposed to increased portion sizes in a free-living setting. NIH worksite study." Appetite 91 (2015).
- Fearnbach, S. Nicole, et al. "Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children." Appetite (2015).
- Finlayson, et al. "Differential effect of fat and carbohydrate composition meals on food hedonics, satiation and satiety." Appetite 91 (2015).
- Hardman, Charlotte A., et al. "“Food addiction is real”. The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour." Appetite 91 (2015): 179-184.
- Higgs, Suzanne. "Manipulations of attention during eating and their effects on later snack intake." Appetite (2015).
- Hofman, et al. "Effects of breakfast size on satiety, glucose, memory, and executive function." Appetite 91 (2015).
- Koidis, et al. "Is satiation altered by earplugs in an eating rate study." Appetite 91 (2015).
- Montelius, Caroline, et al. "Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women." Appetite 81 (2014): 295-304.
- Slevin, C. "The effects of food variety and a BMI adjusted fibre preload on appetite and food intake in normal weight and obese females." Appetite 91 (2015).
- Stenblom, Eva-Lena, et al. "Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women." Appetite 68 (2013): 118-123.
- Stenblom, E. L., et al. "Decreased Urge for Palatable Food after a Two-month Dietary Intervention with Green-plant Membranes in Overweight Women." J Obes Weight Loss Ther 4.238 (2014): 2.
- Stenblom, Eva-Lena, et al. "Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women." Appetite 91 (2015): 209-219.