|Yes, these foods were "allowed" - Even nuts, albeit in limited amounts.|
These principles work! And they have just been shown to help middle-aged type II diabetics (age 59±8 years) shed a quite impressive 6.7 kg of body fat (w/out exercise "only 5.7kg) in 12 weeks - without dieting as in not eating, although you're hungry (Otten. 2016).
As the headline already tells you, the subjects, individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the past 10 years, who had a BMI of 25–40 kg/m2 and were weight stable (i.e. <5% weight loss) for 6 months (that's important, because otherwise the data on the energy deficit in Figure 1, which was calculated as baseline vs. study intake would be inaccurate) were allowed to eat "as-libitum", which practically means "as much as they wanted", as long, as they adhered to (a) "paleo foods", i.e. lean meat, fish, seafood, eggs, vegetables, fruits, berries, and nuts, but no cereals, dairy products, legumes, refined fats, refined sugars, and (extra) salt (canned fish and cold cuts like ham were allowed) and (b) followed the following simple food-specific rules:
Paleo Goes "Real Science" - First Meta-Analysis of Available RCTs Shows Improvements in Health + Body Composition | learn more
- potatoes - only 1 medium sized potato per day
- dried fruit - 130 g/day, not more,
- nuts - 60 g/day, so no snacking on almonds 24/7
- rapeseed or olive oil - maximum 15 g/day
- honey and vinegar - only small amounts as flavoring in cooking
- coffee & tea - max 300 ml/day (each, I assume)
- red wine - only one glass per week
|Figure 1: Energy and macronutrient intake; differences, rel. + abs. above bars (Otten. 2016).|
All exercise sessions started with aerobic exercise. The first session of each week consisted of low-intensity aerobic training at 70% of the maximum heart rate on a crosstrainer (Monark Prime, XT 50, Vansbro, Sweden). The second session of the week consisted of ten high-intensity sprint intervals at 100% of the maximal workload on a cycle-ergometer (Monark, Ergomedic 839E, Vansbro, Sweden), with low-intensity cycling between the sprints. The third session of each week comprised six moderate-intensity 5-min intervals between 45 and 60% of maximal workload on a cycle-ergometer. The duration/workload of the intervals increased every other week. When necessary, the intensity of the aerobic exercise sessions was adjusted in accordance with the participant’s performance.After the aerobic exercise, the sessions progressed to resistance training with both upper and lower body exercises, including leg presses, seated leg extensions, leg curls, hip raises, flat and incline bench presses, seated rows, dumbbell rows, lat pull-downs, shoulder raises, back extensions, burpees, sit-ups, step-ups, and wall ball shots. At each training session, the participant performed 3–5 of the aforementioned resistance exercises, with 10–15 repetitions and 2–4 sets. Once participants could complete all repetitions, the workload was increased for the following session.
resistance training) so valuable while dieting... this and another thing, the abstract of the study does not appreciate, because it did not reach statistical significance: The increase in relative resting energy expenditure (REE), the scientists observed in the PD-EX group (this adds to the extra energy expenditure during workouts, by the way!). While the relative REE didn't change in the PD group, it increased by a(n over the long-term) potentially relevant (but statistically non-significant) 3% in the PD-EX group - an effect that more than countered the nasty reduction in REE scientists still hold responsible for the yoyo-effect most "biggest losers" experience after successfully losing weight.
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- Jönsson, Tommy, et al. "Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study." Cardiovasc Diabetol 8.35 (2009): 1-14.
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