Studies such as Mosher's nitrate supplementation study that shows significant increases in the maximal number of reps during strength training. Studies such as Ouelette's study that refutes the notion that walking on a treadmill in-between sets is beneficial for trainees who are working out in the strength-conditioning range (crossfitters). Studies such as Wilson's review of the usefulness of CHO supplements with an unambiguous result in favor of CHO supplements. And studies like Lattari's who tested the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on trained individuals' strength.
- Ingestion of “BEET It Sport” Nitrate Shot Containing 6.4 mMol or 400 mg of nitrate Improves Resistance Exercise Performance Compared to Blackcurrant Placebo (Mosher. 2016) -- In the corresponding RCT (no sponsorship or bias declared), twelve recreationally active (age, 21 ± 2 years, height, 177.2 ± 4.0 cm, weight, 82.49 ± 9.78 kg) resistance-trained men were assigned in a double-blinded fashion to a randomized cross-over framework where participants ingested either (A) 70 ml of “BEET It Sport” nitrate shot containing 6.4 millimoles (mmol−1·L−1) or 400 mg of nitrate or (B) a blackcurrant placebo drink for six days before their performance during a standardized bench press workout at an intensity of 60% of their established 1 repetition maximum (1RM), for 3 sets until failure with 2 minutes rest interval between sets was tested.
Figure 1: Mean (±SD) number of bench press repetitions for each set and condition totals. (*) denotes a significant main effect for condition (p <= 0.05 | Mosher. 2016).
The authors are thus right to conclude that their study "demonstrates that nitrate supplementation has the potential to improve resistance training performance and work output compared with a placebo" (Mosher. 2016). The same is yet also true for the statement that "f]urther studies are necessary to investigate long-term use and possible adaptations to resistance training with longer periods of dosing with nitrate" - and I would add: we also need studies to find out why some, but not all previous studies appear to confirm these effects.
- Inter-set rest should be full rest, study suggests - Walking may impair recovery (Ouelette. 2016) -- In contrast to previous research, a new study by Ouellette, et al. that compared the effects of seated, supine, and walking interset rest strategies on work rate found that male and female members of a CrossFit® community (male n = 5, female n = 10) who performed a strenuous training session designed to enhance work capacity (cardiovascular and + muscular endurance exercises) achieved higher work rates on when they were lying supine on the floor and/or sitting on a flat bench than when they walked on a treadmill (velocity 0.67 m/s).
Figure 1: Work rate mean and SD by rest strategy are presented (Ouellette. 2016). Low(er) Carb CrossFitters May be Missing Out | 11.1% vs. 4% Rep Increase With 6-8g/kg CHO in 12-Min Rohoi Test | more
- Does Carbohydrate Intake During Endurance Running Improve Performance? A Critical Review Says: It can be (Wilson. 2016)! After all, 13 of the 17 studies comparing a carbohydrate beverage(s) with water or a placebo found a between-condition performance benefit with carbohydrate.
Figure 1: Forest plot of standardized effects sizes and 95% confidence intervals for time trial studies comparing an equivalent volume of carbohydrate beverage(s) with placebo (Wilson. 2016) Figure 2: Forest plot of standardized effects sizes and 95% confidence intervals for time-to-exhaustion studies comparing an equivalent volume of carbohydrate beverage(s) with placebo (Wilson. 2016).
- performance benefits are most likely to occur during events >2 hours, although several studies showed benefits for tasks lasting 90–120 minutes;
- consuming carbohydrate beverages above ad libitum levels increases gastrointestinal discomfort without improving performance;
- carbohydrate gels do not influence performance for events lasting 16–21 km; and
- multiple saccharides may benefit events >2 hours if intake is ≥1.3 g·min−1
- Lattari, Eduardo, et al. "Can transcranial direct current stimulation improves the resistance strength and decreases the rating perceived scale in recreational weight-training experience?." Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association (2016).
- Mosher, Scott, et al. "Ingestion of a nitric oxide enhancing supplement improves resistance exercise performance." Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association (2016).
- Ouellette, Kristen A., et al. "Comparison of the effects of seated, supine and walking inter-set rest strategies upon work rate." Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association (2015).
- Wilson, Patrick B. "Does carbohydrate intake during endurance running improve performance? A critical review." Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association (2016).