|One article, two questions, two science-based answers.|
Along with the latest "green tea for thermogenesis"-study, which finally answers the important question "If Catechins Boost One's Energy Expenditure by 400% Why Don't They Work for Me?", the Chinese-New-Zealand co-production is one of the two studies in today's SuppVersity article.
- You can roast and salt your nuts (all puns intended) and still see health benefits (Tey 2016): Unless you're like the average seventh-grader and misunderstand the previous statement, roasted and salted nuts display no health risk whatsoever.
In fact, Siew Ling Tey and colleagues were recently able to show in a randomized crossover study with 72 perfectly healthy participants, who were asked to consume 30 g/day of either raw or dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts for 28 days, each that the CVD risk factors the scientists assessed still improved significantly (sign. changes in body composition were not recorded - just for the record: body fat declined by 100-200g, muscle mass increased by ca. 100g).
Figure 1: Changes in biochemical parameters in the two groups; only the change in triglycerides (trigs) showed a probably random, yet statistically significant inter-group difference (in favor of the roasted nuts | Tey 2016)
One downside of roasted nuts I do not want to withhold, though, is the slight decrease in alpha-tocopherol during the roasting process, of which the results of the study do, however, indicate that it had no health-relevant consequences.
- Human study confirms: Green tea + caffeine set your brown fat on fire... assuming that you do have functional brown fat (Yoneshiro 2017) -- In rodents, it's not news that the combination of catechins and caffeine will promote brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. In humans, however, the effect has rarely been observed directly and is, as Yoneshiro et al. point out, "poorly understood".
Reason enough for the Japanese scientists to recruit 15 healthy male volunteers, subject them to fluorodeoxyglucosepositron emission tomography and thus assess their BAT activity before and after a single oral ingestion of a beverage containing 615 mg catechin and 77 mg caffeine, as well as after the chronic ingestion of the same beverage 2 times/d for 5 wk in 10 of the subjects.
Figure 2: (A) Study protocol of the acute trial. (B) Study protocol chronic trial. Both of the trials were single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, season-matched crossover studies (Yoneshiro 2017). Figure 3: Change in energy expenditure (adj. for FFM) after the ingestion of the test beverages (left). Thermogenic effects of the catechin or placebo beverage expressed as iAUC of EE (right | Yoneshiro 2017).
- A single ingestion of the catechin beverage increased EE in 9 subjects who had metabolically active BAT (mean ± SEM: +15.24 6 1.48 kcal, P < 0.01) but not in 6 subjects who had negligible activities (mean ± SEM: +3.42 6 2.68 kcal).
- The ingestion of a placebo beverage containing 82 mg caffeine produced a smaller and comparative EE response in the 2 subject groups.
Figure 4: (A) Representative FDG-PET/CT images of the high- and low-BAT subjects. (B) Quantitative BAT activity as the SUV of the high- (n = 9) and low-BAT (n = 6) subjects (Yoneshiro 2017).
Accordingly, it is important to point out that the beneficial effects of chronic GTE + caffeine intake on the thermogenic response to "cold" (19°C) exposure in the 10 normal-weight Japanese subjects may (and I would dare say that it "will") turn out poorly in the average obese individual.
- Carey, Andrew L., et al. "Ephedrine activates brown adipose tissue in lean but not obese humans." Diabetologia 56.1 (2013): 147-155.
- van der Lans, Anouk AJJ, et al. "Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in human adults: methodological issues." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 307.2 (2014): R103-R113.
- Orava, Janne, et al. "Blunted metabolic responses to cold and insulin stimulation in brown adipose tissue of obese humans." Obesity 21.11 (2013): 2279-2287.
- Sacks, Harold, and Michael E. Symonds. "Anatomical Locations of Human Brown Adipose Tissue." Diabetes 62.6 (2013): 1783-1790.
- Tey, Siew Ling, et al. "Do dry roasting, lightly salting nuts affect their cardioprotective properties and acceptability?." European journal of nutrition (2016): 1-12.
- Vijgen, Guy HEJ, et al. "Brown adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects." PloS one 6.2 (2011): e17247.
- Vosselman, Maarten J., Wouter D. van Marken Lichtenbelt, and Patrick Schrauwen. "Energy dissipation in brown adipose tissue: from mice to men." Molecular and cellular endocrinology 379.1 (2013): 43-50.
- Yoneshiro, Takeshi, et al. "Tea catechin and caffeine activate brown adipose tissue and increase cold-induced thermogenic capacity in humans." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017): ajcn144972.