Wednesday, July 21, 2010

USP Labs "Pink Magic": Ingredient Write-Up

Although USP Labs has a long history of using strange or at least unorthodox herbals in their products. Their recently released testosterone booster "Pink Magic" surpasses everything. The following write-up is a revamped version of the one I posted at the Mind & Muscle Forum a few days ago. I will give scientific references for all the ingredients and comment on their use in a product designed to "naturally" boost testosterone levels and muscle growth.

Ingredient 1: Massularia acuminata
  • has androgenic potential - ok, this is probably the reason to include this stuff in the pinkies
J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Aug 13;118(3):508-13. Epub 2008 May 28.
Androgenic potentials of aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata (G. Don) Bullock ex Hoyl. stem in male Wistar rats.

Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT, Adesokan AA.
Medicinal Plants Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.

The use of medicinal plants in the management of several ailments is gaining popularity nowadays. Massularia acuminata, one of such plants is commonly used as chewing sticks due to its antimicrobial activity and the aqueous extract of its stem as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac activity in some plants may be due to androgen increasing property of its phytochemicals. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study therefore sought to assess the androgenic potentials of aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata stem in male rats for 21 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats weighing between 220 and 260 g were completely randomized into four groups: A, B, C and D. Group A, the control received orally 1 ml of distilled water (the vehicle) while groups B, C and D were orally administered with 1 ml each corresponding to 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract, respectively for 21 days. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 1, 7 and 21 days. RESULTS: Compared with the control, extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase (P<0.05) in testes-body weight ratio, testicular protein, glycogen, sialic acid, cholesterol, testosterone, luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations throughout the period of administration. Testicular gamma glutamyl transferase activities were decreased significantly (P<0.05) after the first dose and was sustained throughout the experimental period. CONCLUSION: The available evidence in this study suggests that aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata stem has androgenic potential which may stimulate male sexual maturation and enhance normal testicular function.
  • mediocre tool for oral hygiene - well, I dont know if we need that, do we?
Odontostomatol Trop. 1999 Sep;22(87):13-8.
Effect of two common Nigerian chewing sticks on gingival health and oral hygiene.
Aderinokun GA, Lawoyin JO, Onyeaso CO.
Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. 

This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect on gingival health and oral hygiene of two chewing sticks, commonly used in a Yoruba community in Nigeria. Sixty, 12-year old primary school pupils participated in the study. After baseline data were collected on the status of oral hygiene and gingival health, complete prophylaxis was carried out on all the children. They were then divided into three groups to which toothbrushes, Pako Ijebu (Massularia acuminata) and Orin Ayan (Distemonanthus benthamianus) were assigned. They received instructions and supervision appropriate to the implement they were provided with. At the expiration of the six weeks intervention period, post-intervention readings were taken. There was no significant difference in the oral hygiene status between those using the toothbrush and those using the chewing sticks. Slight improvements were detected in the gingival status of those using the chewing sticks relative to those in the group using toothbrush. The best score was recorded among those using the Orin Ayan (D. Benthamianus). These differences were however not statistically significant. Even though an association between gingival health and use of these chewing sticks could not be drawn, it is suggested that further studies be conducted in this area.
Ingredient 2: Nelumbo nucifera
  • inhibits CYP1A2 - I dont know if you'd want that, because this enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of estrogen - gyno, here I come!
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010 May;62(5):658-62.
In-vitro and in-vivo evaluations of cytochrome P450 1A2 interactions with nuciferine.
Hu L, Xu W, Zhang X, Su J, Liu X, Li H, Zhang W.
Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.


OBJECTIVES: The effects of nuciferine, a major active aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, on a cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) probe substrate were investigated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Nuciferine and recombinant human CYP1A2 were incubated together to study the impact of nuciferine on CYP1A2 in vitro. Nuciferine was administered orally to Wistar rats at a dose of 20 mg/kg to further estimate the impact of nuciferine on CYP1A2 in vivo. A probe substrate, phenacetin, was used to index the activity of CYP1A2. KEY FINDINGS: The IC50 value for nuciferine was determined to be 2.12 mmol/l. When phenacetin was intravenously coadministered with nuciferine compared with phenacetin alone, the elimination rate constant and total body clearance of phenacetin were decreased by 24.0% (P < 0.01) and 43.0% (P < 0.05), respectively. The mean residence time, apparent elimination half-time and area under the plasma concentration-time curve were increased by 22% (P < 0.005), 26.9% (P < 0.02) and 74.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, when phenacetin was coadministered orally with nuciferine, the apparent elimination half-time in the nuciferine pretreated group was increased by 16.7% (P < 0.05) and the elimination rate constant was decreased by 15.4% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that nuciferine inhibited CYP1A2 activity in vitro and caused changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenacetin in vivo.
  • anti-obesity effect: well, if you get tits, you at least have no love handles
J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jun 9;58(11):7075-81.
Improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity and body fat accumulation by a Nelumbo nucifera leaf flavonoid-rich extract in mice.
Wu CH, Yang MY, Chan KC, Chung PJ, Ou TT, Wang CJ.
Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No 110, Section 1, Chien-kauo N Road, Taichung, Taiwan. 

Diets high in fat lead to excessive lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effect of a flavonoid-enriched extract from Nelumbo nucifera leaf (NLFE) in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. NLFE reduced the body weight, body lipid accumulation, and activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. NLFE also suppressed the expression of FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and HMGCoA reductase and increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver. Taken together, we demonstrated that NLFE targets lipid-regulated enzymes and may be effective in attenuating body lipid accumulation
and preventing obesity.
Planta Med. 2007 Oct;73(12):1255-9. Epub 2007 Sep 24.
Constituents from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera stimulate lipolysis in the white adipose tissue of mice.

Ohkoshi E, Miyazaki H, Shindo K, Watanabe H, Yoshida A, Yajima H.
KIRIN Brewery Co., Ltd., Central Laboratories for Frontier Technology, Kanagawa, Japan. 

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaceae) has been used for various medicinal purposes as in Chinese herbal medicine. In particular, the leaves are known for diuretic and astringent properties, and are used to treat obesity. During our search for a plant-derived anti-obesity agent from natural products, we have found that a 50% ethanol (EtOH) extract prepared from the leaves of N. nucifera (NN) stimulated lipolysis in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice and that the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) pathway was involved in this effect. In subsequent experiments, dietary supplementation of NN resulted in a significant suppression of body weight gain in A/J mice fed a high-fat diet. Bioassay-guided fractionation and repeated chromatography of NN has led to the isolation and identification of quercetin 3-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside (1), rutin (2), (+)-catechin (3), hyperoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), quercetin (6) and astragalin (7). Of these, compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 exhibited lipolytic activity, especially in visceral adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the effects of NN in preventing diet-induced obesity appear to be due to various flavonoids and that the activation of beta-AR pathway was involved, at least in part.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jun 30;106(2):238-44. Epub 2006 Feb 21.
Anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice and rats.

Ono Y, Hattori E, Fukaya Y, Imai S, Ohizumi Y.
Matsuura Yakugyo Co. Ltd., Enjo-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 459-8001, Japan. 

The leaf of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (family Nymphaeaceae) has been used for summer heat syndrome as home remedy in Japan and China, and it has recently been used to treat obesity in China. So we investigate the pharmacological mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract (NNE). We examined the effect of NNE on digestive enzyme activity, lipid metabolism and theromogenesis and evaluated the effects of anti-obesity using high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice that were treated with NNE for 5 weeks. NNE caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the activities of alpha-amylase and lipase, and up-regulated lipid metabolism and expression of UCP3 mRNA in C2C12 myotubes. NNE prevented the increase in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight and liver triacylglycerol levels in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. UCP3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle tended to be higher, when mice were administrated by NNE and were exercised. Therefore, NNE impaired digestion, inhibited absorption of lipids and carbohydrates, accelerated lipid metabolism and up-regulated energy expenditure. Consequently, NNE is beneficial for the suppression of obesity.
  • anti-oxidant: lets face it guys. we already have enough anti-oxidants + we do not really know if they do not hinder muscle gains (if consumed in abundance); what is more interesting is that we do not know where USP gets their lotus from (i.e. what its ingredient profile will be)
J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jan 13;58(1):441-8.
Comparative analysis of essential oil components and antioxidant activity of extracts of Nelumbo nucifera from various areas of China.

Huang B, Ban X, He J, Tong J, Tian J, Wang Y.
Institute of the Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China. 

This study was designed to examine the composition of extracts and essential oil components from Nelumbo nucifera leaves from the principal habitats in China. The amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the lotus leaf extracts varied widely, ranging from 354 to 487 mg/g gallic acid equivalents, from 172 to 236 mg/g rutin equivalents, and from 124 to 179 mg/g catechin equivalents, respectively. All of the extracts had strong antioxidant activity in comparison to the standard compounds butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin C. Wild lotus samples from Baiyangdian Lake and Weishan Lake exhibited a stronger free radical scavenging effect and greater reducing power than the cultural samples, but no such differences were observed in the inhibition of lipid oxidation. Chemical variation in the essential oils from the various samples was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents were l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (0-33.5%), trans-phytol (5.1-24.1%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5.6-15.3%), pentadecyl acrylate (2.2-12.4%), geranyl acetone (1.9-8.0%), and beta-ionone (0-8.0%). The rhizome lotus and seed lotus samples were clustered into separate groups by hierarchical cluster analysis according to the composition of the corresponding essential oils. No significant relationship was found between essential oil composition and geographical distribution of the 11 populations. However, the results indicated that region of origin and growing conditions could significantly affect both the bioactivities of the lotus leaf and the content of bioactive compounds in the leaves. Thus, the existence of chemical polymorphism in the N. nucifera leaf in China was demonstrated.
  • improved insulin sensitivity - nothing special in todays world of insulin-mimetics, hypoglycaemic herbs etc. (cf. rosiglitazone or tolbutamide, see studies cited)
J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul 6;124(1):98-102. Epub 2009 Apr 11.
Neferine enhances insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.

Pan Y, Cai B, Wang K, Wang S, Zhou S, Yu X, Xu B, Chen L.
Laboratory of Medical Fungi and Phyto-Biotech, Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neferine was isolated from green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn which has been used as an anti-obesity agent in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of neferine on enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats compared with rosiglitazone and to potentially reveal its role in mediating the anti-obesity properties of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FINS), triglycerides (TG) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured, and the oral glucose tolerance test for 2-h plasma glucose level (2-h PG) was carried out. The glucose infusion rate (GIR) was used to measure the insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. RESULTS: The levels of FBG, FINS, TG, TNF-alpha and 2-h PG all decreased significantly in the rosiglitazone and neferine groups compared with the insulin resistance (IR) model group. Neferine diminished the 2-h PG more than did rosiglitazone treatment. Compared to the IR model group, the treatments of neferine and rosiglitazone remarkably increased GIRs but no difference between these two treatments themselves was evident. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that neferine has effects similar to rosiglitazone in decreasing fasting blood glucose, insulin, TG, TNF-alpha and enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Nov;58(3):207-13.
Effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on blood sugar level in rats.

Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP.
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India. 

Oral administration of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera markedly reduced the blood sugar level of normal, glucose-fed hyperglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, when compared with control animals. The extract improved glucose tolerance and potentiated the action of exogenously injected insulin in normal rats. When compared with tolbutamide, the extract exhibited activity of 73 and 67% of that of tolbutamide in normal and diabetic rats, respectively.
  • sedative effect similar to diazepam - certainly something you want to avoid (at least around workouts)
Phytomedicine. 2008 Dec;15(12):1117-24.
Effects of extracts and neferine from the embryo of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on the central nervous system.

Sugimoto Y, Furutani S, Itoh A, Tanahashi T, Nakajima H, Oshiro H, Sun S, Yamada J.
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Yokohama College of Pharmacy, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0066, Japan. 

The effects of embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera on the central nervous system were studied in mice. MeOH extracts of embryos of Nelumbo nucifera seeds significantly inhibited locomotor activity in mice. The MeOH extract was successively partitioned between H(2)O and n-hexane, between H(2)O and CHCl(3), and between H(2)O and n-BuOH. CHCl(3) extracts strongly inhibited locomotor activity in mice, although other extracts had no effect on locomotor activity. The main alkaloid of CHCl(3) extracts, neferine, dose-dependently inhibited locomotor activity in mice. Neferine induced hypothermia in mice and apparently potentiated thiopental-induced sleeping time. An anxiolytic, diazepam, decreased locomotor activity, rectal temperature and enhanced sleep elicited by thiopental, similar to neferine. In addition, neferine and diazepam showed anti-anxiety effects in the elevated plus maze test. Neferine did not affect muscle coordination by the rota-rod test. Neferine did not affect strychnine- nor picrotoxin-induced seizure. In contrast, diazepam had apparent muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant effects. These results suggest that neferine has several central effects and that neferine may participate in the efficacy of the sedative effects of embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera. The mechanisms of the sedative effects of neferine are not similar to those of diazepam.
  • phosphadiesterase inhibitor > cAMP-increase: at last something we could make use of
Asian J Androl. 2008 Mar;10(2):307-12. Epub 2007 Dec 20.
Effects of plant extract neferine on cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro.

Chen J, Liu JH, Wang T, Xiao HJ, Yin CP, Yang J.
Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. 

AIM: To further investigate the relaxation mechanism of neferine (Nef), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted (isolated) from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn in China, on rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue in vitro. METHODS: The effects of Nef on the concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in isolated and incubated rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue were recorded using 125I radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The basal concentration of cAMP in corpus cavernosum tissue was 5.67 +/- 0.97 pmol/mg. Nef increased the cAMP concentration in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), but this effect was not inhibited by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor (cis-N-[2-phenylcyclopentyl]azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine, MDL-12, 330A) (P > 0.05). The accumulation of cAMP induced by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, a stimulator of cAMP production) was also augmented by Nef in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The basal concentration of cGMP in corpus cavernosum tissue is 0.44 +/- 0.09 pmol/mg. Nef did not affect this concentration of cGMP, either in the presence or in the absence of a guanyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ) (P > 0.05). Also, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a stimulator of cGMP production)-induced cGMP production was not enhanced by Nef (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nef, with its relaxation mechanism, can enhance the concentration of cAMP in rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue, probably by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity.
  • hepatoprotective - not bad, but do we look for that in a test-booster?
Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):165-9.
Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects of Nelumbo nucifera.

Sohn DH, Kim YC, Oh SH, Park EJ, Li X, Lee BH.
College of Pharmacy and Medicinal Resources Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk, Korea. 

Ethanol extracts from Nelumbo nucifera (ENN) seeds were studied for possible antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects. Antioxidative effects were measured spectrophotometrically by reduction of 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Hepatoprotective effects were tested using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocyte toxicity models. ENN showed potent free radical scavenging effects with a median inhibition concentration of 6.49 microg/ml. Treatment of hepatocytes with ENN inhibited both the production of serum enzymes and cytotoxicity by CCl4. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of AFB1 were also inhibited by ENN in dose-dependent manners. These hepatoprotective effects of ENN against CCl4 and AFB1 might result from its potent antioxidative properties.
Ingredient 3: Rhamnus nakaharai
  • PDE 3 inhibtor - are you heart-insufficient? no? then you do not need that...
Planta Med. 2003 Apr;69(4):310-5.
3-O-methylquercetin more selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase subtype 3.

Ko WC, Chen MC, Wang SH, Lai YH, Chen JH, Lin CN.
Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, ROC. 

Rhamnus nakaharai Hayata (Rhamnaceae), has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for treating constipation, inflammation, tumors and asthma. 3-O-methylquercetin (3-MQ), a main constituent of the plant, has been reported to inhibit total cAMP- and cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) of guinea pig trachealis. Therefore we were interested in investigating the inhibitory effect of 3-MQ on various PDE isozymes from guinea pig lungs and hearts. Isolated guinea pig lungs and hearts were homogenized and centrifuged. The supernatant was chromatographed over a column of Q-sepharose, and eluted with various concentrations of NaCl. In the following order, PDE subtypes 1, 5, 2, 4 from lungs, and 3 from hearts were separated. The IC 50 values of 3-MQ on these isozymes were 31.9, 86.9, 18.6, 28.5 and 1.6 microM, respectively. 3-MQ (10-100 microM) non-competitively inhibited PDE2, but competitively inhibited PDE4. 3-MQ (1-10 microM) also competitively inhibited PDE3. However, 3-MQ (10-100 microM) did not competitively inhibit PDE1 and 5, although it had a tendency to competitively inhibit PDE1 at concentrations of 10 - 30 microM. The present results showed that K i value of 3-MQ was similar to that of milrinone in PDE3, and was not significantly different from that of Ro 20 - 1724 in PDE4, respectively. In conclusion, 3-MQ was revealed to be a selective and competitive PDE3/PDE4 inhibitor, although its inhibitory effect on PDE4 was not potent. Therefore, 3-MQ may have a potential in the treatment of asthma beside its antiviral activity.
  • anti-inflammatory & anti-oxidant: same as for for nucifera <> do we need another one/that at all? (of interest is that it is a quercitin methyl ether that modulates the effect)
Planta Med. 2001 Nov;67(8):745-7.
In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin 3-O-methyl ether and other constituents from Rhamnus species.

Wei BL, Lu CM, Tsao LT, Wang JP, Lin CN.
National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China. 

The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ether (1), kaempferol (2), and quercetin (3), of Rhamnus nakaharai, and anthraquinone, frangulin B (4), of Rhamnus formosana, were assessed in vitro by determining their inhibitory effects on the chemical mediators released from mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and microglial cells. Compounds 1 - 3 strongly inhibited the release of beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from rat neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). Compound 1 strongly inhibited superoxide anion formation in fMLP/CB or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated rat neutrophils. Compound 1 exhibited potent inhibitory effect on tumor-necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-alpha) formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while 1 and 4 showed potent inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha formation in LPS/IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma)-stimulated murine microglial cell lines N9.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007 Mar;55(3):382-4.
Antioxidative effects of 6-methoxysorigenin and its derivatives from Rhamnus nakaharai.

Ng LT, Lin CC, Lu CM.
Department of Biotechnology, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan. 

In the search for potential antioxidants, the naphthalenic compounds, 6-methoxysorigenin (2) 2 is a potent antioxidant and may also be used for designing new iron chelators for clinical applications.
and its glycosides [i.e. 6-methoxysorigenin-8-O-glucoside (3), alpha-sorinin (4), and 6-methoxysorigenin-8-rutinoside (5)] isolated from Rhamnus nakaharai together with two acylates (peracetate and perpropionate) of 2 were evaluated for antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), metal chelating, and electron spin resonance (ESR) assays as well as anti-lipid peroxidation assay. The results showed that 2 possesses the most potent DPPH radical scavenging, metal chelating, and anti-lipid peroxidation activities with IC50 values of 3.48, 615.90, and 5.95 microg/ml, respectively. The glycosides 3, 4, and 5 showed decreasing antioxidant activity that was related to an increased substitution at 1,8-dihydroxyl with sugar molecules. This suggests the importance of 1,8-dihydroxyl of 2 in the antioxidative effect. The iron chelation result could further explain the main cause of increasing antioxidant activity in 2. The acylates of 2 (2a peracetate and 2b perpropionate), although lacking a free hydroxyl, also exhibited significant anti-lipid peroxidation effect. ESR results further demonstrated that 2 possesses strong antioxidant activities. Taken together, this study shows that 2 is a potent antioxidant and may also be used for designing new iron chelators for clinical applications.
I hope all that work helps you decide on whether you believe in the marketing-hype of the last weeks or rather spend your money on some tried and proven supplements such as whey, creatine, glutamine, beta alanine & co.