|Image 1: How free is your "free choice" really when it comes to when, what and how much you eat or consume? Are you controlled by cunningly placed triggers and cues?|
Behavioural economics + Social psychology + Neuroscience = POWER!
Over the past few decades, behavioural economics, social psychology and neuroscience have uncovered a complex network of hard-wired trigger => action pairs and instinctual processes which govern our day-to-day choices. And over time, this knowledge about psychological mechanisms, which may originally have evolved as a means to cope with the complexities of life without having to rationalize for hours over the vast amount of choices and their individual consequences, has developed into one of the most important and probably single-most effect marketing tools of the 21st century.
Therefore, I did decide to use the recent publication of a pertinent paper in the journal of the Internationals Association for the Study of Obesity as an opportunity to tackle a few of the endless subtle and no so subtle messages by which the food, entertainment and fitness industry is trying to guide your and my daily dietary and behavioral choices into those directions which will generate the greatest revenue for them.
Hardwired (food-)choices: From Pavlov's bell to the priming effect of "fat free" stickers
|Image 2: "Peel me I'm Fat Free" - I would laugh, if it wasn't so maddening.|
There is yet plenty of evidence which suggests that what was intended to facilitate survival can - assuming a "false" wiring - can turn against us, these days.
Here are a couple of examples:
- It takes only 20ms for the average consumer to identify his favorite cookie and 1/3 of a second to make his / her choice (Milosavljevic. 2011) - even if they were there, when we are in a hurry (and let's be honest, aren't we constantly "on the run"?) chances that we would even see, recognize and think about healthier alternatives right next to our staples, the Snickers, Oreos, Twinkies or Syntha-6 Decadence Protein Bars of this world, are not close to, they simply are zero.
- Consumers pick products based on brands / recognizable labels, without taking a closer look at what they are buying (MacVean. 2009) - If it says "weight watchers approved", it must be good, for weightloss and "all natural corn sugar" is certainly healthy, right? Ah,.. and if "Whole Foods" sells it, you don't have to think twice, it's whole food, man!
- Exposure alone and subliminal familiarization renders products more attractive (Zajonc. 2001; Auty. 2004) - It does not have to be one of those dubious "drink coca cola" inserts that was (supposedly) run in single frames in the movie theaters back in the day, when the pictures started moving (for the efficacy of which there is by the way some scientific evidence; cf. Copper. 2002) for us to react to constant exposure by being more attracted to a certain product. This effect is particularly pronounced though, if we are not noticing how it is pushed on us. And the "cholesterol causes heart disease hypothesis, the current carb scare or the rampant vitamin D craze are contemporary examples which show that this also works for "non-material" goods or concepts.
- Preference for heuristic choices (Scheibehenne. 2007) - We gravitate towards so-called heuristic choices, i.e. we like to base our "decisions" on exactly one and only one (often learned) parameter. For food, for example this has become the amount of fat the food contains for an unfortunate majority of the folks who say of themselves that they "eat healthy". If you either know which parameters these are or invest enough new marketing dollars to replace an old by a new heuristic parameter, you can sell rancid plant oils as cholesterol-lowering super-margarine and push your latest testosterone booster onto people because it contains the highest amount of bulbine of all products that are currently on the market. For the former you can simply rely on the ground-breaking *rofl* work of the government, with the latter you will have to pay a handful of "reps" (these are people who frequent the major bulletin boards and tell other people whatever you pay them for) to install the bulbine natalensis acid contet as the novel #1 criteria for people to look for in a testosterone booster.
From Mac Donald's to your local sushi bar - they all how to push your buttons
Now that you are familiar with some of the fundamental mechanism, let's take a look how the evil clown with the red hair and the innocently smiling manager of your local sushi place exploit your (hard-)wiring to help you you make the "right" food choices at their restaurants - "right" obviously for them, not necessarily for you!
- Restaurant or Supermarket - Where's the Difference?Being next door - Since most of the decisions to eat-out are made spontaneously (>64% for the younger generation; >52% for the 60+ agers), the redheaded clown will soon open his 13,000+ (US only) franchise restaurant right next to your local sushi place, to increase his chance that you pick him, and not the sushi guy, whenever you spontaneously decide to "eat" out.According to their different business model supermarkets employ other techniques to persuade you into buying things you don't need and certainly shouldn't eat. The way managers of supermarkets, grocery stores and even your local farmer take (unfair?) advantage of fundamental human psychological wirings, when they press the buttons on remote control of your subconsciousness is the same for all salesmen and women:
- Omnipresence - <5% of the US citizens have no supermarket within half a mile of their home and when it's close and convenient, they buy
- Expanding and constantly revised product range - From 7,000 in the 1970s to >40,000 products, today; individual supermarkets have >50,000 items in one store (!), needless to say the vast majority are processed foods
- Special arrangement of the products - From simple surveys to video and eye-tracking, lighting and perfume; setting up the perfect store setting has become a science in it's own right. End-isles which account for for 30-40% of all sales are only one of the countless examples of how you are lead to buy stuff you don't need or shouldn't eat (Sorensen. 2003 & 2008)
- Slogans and keywords - Against the background that the average customer will read no more than 8-12 lines of text on an average shopping trip, it is of paramount important to make those count (Sorensen. 2008)
- Structured chaos - Not sorting soups, cereals and co and forcing people to search for what they want within a range of similar / related products will increase sales, esp. of new products (Larson. 2006).
- Using XXL cartonages - They convey the notion of "making a bargain" or "getting more for one's money" regardless of the content (Mayer. 2008)
- Putting Mickey and the Ice Age characters on whatever you want kids to buy - While the right cartoon characters render even fruit as attractive to kids as candy, they are mostly (ab-)used by candy producers to outdo one another (De Droog. 2011)
- "Buy X, get Y for free" incentives - When costumers see those, their brain goes into hibernation (Wansink. 1998)
- Providing a decent range - Five different types of fruity ice cream increase the chance that customers buy one of those by 21% over having only a binary choice between fruit and chocolate, for example (Sela .2009); too many choices, e.g. 20 types of icecream, will yet overwhelm customers (Iyengar. 2000; Schwartz. 2003).
- Placing unhealthy items first - Items that come first on the menu, even better on the upper right hand of the menu, will get picked first (Hadden. 1997; Dayan, 2011). Smart move of owner of the sushi place that he placed the overpriced junk right in this "sweet spot" of his menu.
- Hiding expensive stuff in the bargain section - If you did not notice that the Sushi Master Plate is not one of the bargain, although it is listed in a box in the upper right corner on the bargains page, the manager of your local sushi store, must have read that Poundstone's "Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (and How to Make Advantage of It" twice ;-)
- Not being afraid of labeling the calories - The redheaded clown has no problem to publicly display the caloric value of his junkfood on the Internet. After all, he has hired enough experts to know that you, just as the participants in most of the pertinent trials won't really care (Harnack. 2008; Elbel. 2011; Vadiveloo. 2011)
- Using a traffic light system to highlight "healthy" foods - Your sushi bar manager has decided against the calories and for the classic traffic light system, to guide the food choices of lean women to overpriced foods with a green light (Temple. 2011), and increase his sales of desserts - how come? Well, the average (not necessarily lean and female, though) consumer who picks an item with a green light (=healthy), will feel inclined to make up for this "sacrifice" by ordering a neat dessert (Heathcote. 2011).
- Not using the world "healthy" explicitly - With "healthy" being perceived as synonymous with "less palatable" and "untasty", the redheaded clown is well aware that putting to much of an emphasis on the term "health" could compromise his sales (Raghunathan. 2006).
- Serve repeated customers smaller servings - Your sushi bar guy knows his customers and that they won't notice, when he gradually reduces the amount of expensive raw tuna on their plates. After all, the majority of people have long given up on judging their satiety by how much they eat (e.g. Orlet Fishe. 2003; Levitsky. 2004; Steenhuis. 2009). As long as they eat the same "number" as the last 27 times they have been at the sushi place, they will be happy and satisfied for the rest of the day.
- Offering only tongs at the salad bar - You may not have realized that, but the tongs at the salad bar increase the revenue of your local sushi bar by 8-16%! Those 8-16% by the way, people will eat less, when loading stuff on their plates is made minimally less convenient (Rozin. 2011) - so don't wonder if they replace the tongs with chopsticks next month ;-)
- Playing the right kind of music - Your burgers taste like crap, not a problem if you serve them with the right music. People don't drink enough liquor on one of the afterhours parties at your bar? A couple of songs related to music and your business will flourish (Spence. 2010)
- Recommend food to your (overweight) costumers - Ever wondered why the nice young waitress at the Sushi place keeps telling your obese aunt Mary that they did now offer Häagen-Dazs super premium ice cream? She is probably aware of the results of a 1983 study by Herman et al., which showed that obese customers are highly "obedient" to social influence (Herman. 1983) - whether it's obedience and not rather the good feeling of someone else suggesting that she can have that large bowl of icecream on top of her sushi that makes your aunt forget about all your dietary advise is certainly debatable, the results, on the other hand, are conspicuous :-(
Implications: The German word "Zeitgeist" is - at least in my humble opinion - probably the term which captures the idea of how certain social paradigms, or I should clarify the paradigms of the social circles we belong to or want to belong to, influence our "freedom of choice" best. Yet, in the end, it does not even matter, whether you, your friends and everyone from your social milieu shops at the local farmers market, the classical supermarket or Whole Paychecks, as my friend Carl Lanore from Super Human Radio likes to refer to a certain not exactly cheap supermarket chain that has successfully green-washed his image, ...References:
- your decisions to shop at whichever of the available "markets" you chose are rarely as reasonable as you persuade yourself they were.
- at the very moment you've set your foot amidst the market stalls or grabbed yourself one of those XXL caddies, (too) many of us have already handed over the reins completely
- Auty S, Lewis C. Exploring children’s choice: the reminder effect of product placement. Psychol Mark. 2004;21: 697–713.
- Cohen DA, Babey SH. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices. Obes Rev. 2012 May 3.
- Dayan E, Bar-Hillel M. Nudge to nobesity II: menu positions influence food orders. Judgm Decis Mak 2011; 6: 333–342.
- de Droog SM, Valkenburg PM, Buijzen M. Using brand characters to promote young children’s liking of and purchase requests for fruit.J Health Commun. 2011; 16: 79–89.
- Elbel B, Gyamfi J, Kersh R. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment. Int J Obes 2011; 35: 493–500.
- Harnack LJ, French SA, Oakes JM, Story MT, Jeffery RW,
Rydell SA. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial. Int J Behav
Nutr Phys Act 2008; 5: 63–63.
- Heathcote F, Baic S. The effectiveness and acceptability of a traffic light labelled menu with energy information to signpost customers towards healthier alternatives in a table service restaurant. J Hum Nutr Diet 2011; 24: 390–391.
- Hedden J. Maximize menu merchandising power. Restaurants USA. 1997. < http://wwwrestaurantorg/business/ magarticlecfm?ArticleID=477 > retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Herman CP, Olmsted MP, Polivy J. Obesity, externality, and susceptibility to social influence: an integrated analysis. J Pers Soc Psychol 1983; 45: 926–934.
- Iyengar SS, Lepper MR. When choice is demotivating: can one desire too much of a good thing?J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000; 79:995–1006.
- Levitsky DA, Youn T. The more food young adults are served, the more they overeat. J Nutr 2004; 134: 2546–2549.
- Larson R. Core principles for supermarket aisle management. J Food Distrib Res. 2006; 37: 101–105.
- Libet B, Pearl DK, Morledge DE, Gleason CA, Hosobuchi Y, Barbaro NM. Control of the transition from sensory detection to sensory awareness in man by the duration of a thalamic stimulus. The cerebral ‘time-on’ factor. Brain 1991; 114: 1731–1757
- Meier BP, Robinson MD, Caven AJ. Why a Big Mac is a good Mac: associations between affect and size.Basic Appl Soc Psychol. 2008; 30: 46–55.
- Milosavljevic M, Koch C, Rangel A. Consumers can make decisions in as little as a third of a second. Judgm Decis Mak 2011; 6: 520–530.
- Orlet Fisher J, Rolls BJ, Birch LL. Children’s bite size and intake of an entree are greater with large portions than with age-appropriate or self-selected portions. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 1164–1170.
- Poundstone W. Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (and How to Take Advantage of It). Hill and Wang: New York, 2010.
- Raghunathan R, Walker RE, Hoyer WD. The unhealthy=tasty intuition and its effects on taste inferences, enjoyment, and choice of food products. Adv Consum Res 2006; 33: 450–451.
- Rozin P, Scott S, Dingley M, Urbanek JK, Jiang H, Kaltenbach M. Nudge to nobesity I: minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake. Judgm Decis Mak 2011; 6: 323–332.
- Schwartz B.The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less. Ecco, Harper Collins: New York, 2003.
- Sela A, Berger J, Liu W. Variety, vice, and virtue: how assort-ment size influences option choice.J Consum Res. 2009; 35: 941–951.
- Sorensen H. The science of shopping.Mark Res. 2003;15: 30–35.
- Sorensen H. Long tail media in the store. J Advert Res 2008; 48: 329–338.
- Spence C, Shankar MU. The influence of auditory cues on the perception of, and responses to, food and drink. J Sens Stud 2010; 25: 406–430.
- Steenhuis IH, Vermeer WM. Portion size: review and framework for interventions. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2009; 6: 58.
- Temple JL, Johnson KM, Archer K, Lacarte A, Yi C, Epstein LH. Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults. Appetite 2011; 57: 184–192.
- Vadiveloo MK, Dixon LB, Elbel B. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011; 8: 51.
- Wansink B, Kent RJ, Hoch SJ. An anchoring and adjustment model of purchase quantity decisions.J Mark Res. 1998; 35: 71–81.
- Waldrop J. Most restaurant meals are bought on impulse. American Demographics 01634089. 1994; 16.
- Zajonc RB. Mere exposure: a gateway to the subliminal.Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2001;10: 224–228