|Saffron-rye breads? Not necessary, if you can achieve the same beneficial effects with nothing but rye bread alone.|
Rye + Safron is not better than rye alone
When they were trying to come up with another (dys-)functional food, the researchers from the Poznan University of Life Sciences in Poland speculated that the addition of some expensive saffron powder that was extracted from S stigma (Crocus sativus) and contained 2% safranal as its purportedly active ingredient would exert anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on a high-fat (HF) diet.
|Figure 1: Glucose management, antioxidant status and lipid management in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after supplementation with either saffron (S), rye bread (RB) or both (RB+S) after 5 weeks (Bajerska. 2013)|
The scientists do however have a first hypothesis to explain the absence of synergistic effects in response to the saffron supplementation: The heat damage during the baking process. In the course of the latter the saffron-containing dough will be heated to temperatures way above the tolerable range of > 60 C° - a temperature at which a non-negligible fraction of the carotenoids in saffron begin to degrade. In conjunction with the low bio-accessible in the digestive tract may (in fact the latter is not much better than that of curcumin, cf. Vitaglione. 2012) being further decreased by the interactions and bindings with the processed food components of the bread (proteins and starch), this may in fact explain why the saffron didn't do the trick.
"In relation to the aim of the current study, it is important to note that incorporation of S powder in the RB did not additionally improve the regeneration of damaged pancreas b-cells or the secretion of insulin, nor did it decrease blood glucose levels above that seen in the case of S powder and RB alone.
Pasta! From a satiety perspective even white bread would be a better choice (learn more).
Moreover, it should be mentioned that the amounts of S powder added to the HF diet, and of S powder contained in RB added to the HF formula were matched to the similar dose of bioactive components." (Bajerska. 2013)
|King or Pauper, who's breaking the fast "right" (learn more)?|
Moreover, epidemiological data suggests that the consumption of rye could protect against cancers of the upper digestive tract and entails significant reductions in myocardial infarction, diabetes and ischaemic stroke risk ( Hallmans. 2003). So, if you don't want to join the current hysteria about bread being (yet another) root cause of all disease, and keep eating bread on a regular basis, it may not be the worst idea to switch from "W" as in wheat to "R" as in rye. And by the way, if you are into porridge, having some whole grain rye porridge for breakfast has been shown to have an 8h satiety effect (Isaksso. 2008) - certainly not bad, if you are one of those people who are having a hard time not to snack in between meals, right?
- Bajerska J, Mildner-Szkudlarz S, Podgórski T, Oszmatek-Pruszyńska E. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Powder as an Ingredient of Rye Bread: An Anti-Diabetic Evaluation. J Med Food. 2013 Aug 3. [Epub ahead of print]
- Di Cagno R, Barbato M, Di Camillo C, Rizzello CG, De Angelis M, Giuliani G, De Vincenzi M, Gobbetti M, Cucchiara S. Gluten-free sourdough wheat baked goods appear safe for young celiac patients: a pilot study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Dec;51(6):777-83.
- Hallmans G, Zhang JX, Lundin E, Stattin P, Johansson A, Johansson I, Hultén K, Winkvist A, Aman P, Lenner P, Adlercreutz H. Rye, lignans and human health. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Feb;62(1):193-9. Review.
- Isaksson H, Sundberg B, Aman P, Fredriksson H, Olsson J. Whole grain rye porridge breakfast improves satiety compared to refined wheat bread breakfast. Food Nutr Res. 2008;52.
- Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030.Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;87:4–14.
- Vitaglione P, Barone Lumaga R, Ferracane R,et al.: Curcumin bioavailability from enriched bread: the effect of microencapsulated ingredients.J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:3357–3366.
- Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H: Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1047–1053