|Grazing not allowed!|
"Even if subjective and physiological data suggest a beneficial effect of frequent eating on appetite in obese men, no effect was demonstrated on energy intake. Moreover, the decrease in diet induced thermogenesis and lipolysis, reflected by NEFA profiles, could be deleterious on energy balance in the long run."
What? Grazing ain't good for me? But my doctor (Oz?) said so!
If you are still in the "I believe every word my doctor" says phase of your development as a free-thinking individual, it's probably a waste of time to read the rest of the article. If you have an open ear and eye for the scientific discoveries that have been made in 25 years that have been passed since the 5th edition of the by then already outdated textbook your doctor used during his studies were published, I'd suggest you take a look at the overview of the study design:
"[A]fter being included, the subjects had a first visit for a lunch at the experimental restaurant of Institut Paul Bocuse Research Centre (IPB). The aim of this first visit was to familiarize the subjects with the environment and the foods which would be used during the study.After this first visit, the subjects were then invited to four experimental sessions, in a randomized order, each session separated by at least 7 days: two were conducted in IPB for behavioral explorations; the other two took place in Rhône-Alpes Research Centre for Human Nutrition (CRNH) for metabolic explorations.
During this visit, subjects were invited to the experimental restaurant at 12:00 and were asked to taste all of the food items offered at an individual buffet-type meal. A choice of classical hot and cold French food items with varied macronutrient compositions was offered. [...] Subjects were instructed to eat ad libitum. The mean rating of food items, measured on a 100 mm electronic visual analog scale (VAS), varied from 4.4 ± 0.4 (for grated carrots), to 7.5 ± 0.4." (Allriot. 2014)
Please note: What the scientists observed in the study at hand, as well as in their previous research does not confirm that eating more frequently will make you obese. It does however provide significant evidence against the "eat more frequently to stay lean"-hypothesis that's still rattling around in the mainstream media and certain parts of the fitness community.At first this may seem awkward, but by having four sessions in different locations the scientists tried to minimize environmental confounders. Furthermore, the order of the four testing sessions was randomized across the participants to prevent any order effect (the random allocation sequences were generated by a biostatistician using a 2-step randomization).
- Subjects were requested to avoid vigorous activities and to abstain from alcohol consumption the day before each session.
- Subjects were also asked to select a dinner they consume regularly and to eat this same meal the evening before each session.
- Subjects were also instructed tofinish eating this dinner by 9:00 pm and to eat nothing else after this time.
- 20 min in T0 (8:00 am) (F1 condition) or
- 4x10 min long (168.7 kcal each) every hour at T0, T60, T120 and T180 min (F4 condition).
Ok, you know the results, but ....
... let's still take the time and check out the quantitative differences between the metabolic response to grazing (F4 condition) vs. regular food consumption (F1) in the 17 obese male study particpants (BMI 31.9kg/m²).
|Figure 1: Subjective satiety and hunger scores in the obese subjects during the 2x2 testing conditions (Allriot. 2014)|
|Figure 2: Insulin (left) and NEFA (right) levels after the test-meals (Allriot. 2014)|
- Allirot, Xavier, et al. "An isocaloric increase of eating episodes in the morning contributes to decrease energy intake at lunch in lean men." Physiology & behavior 110 (2013): 169-178.
- Allirot, Xavier, et al. "Effects of a breakfast spread out over time on the food intake at lunch and the hormonal responses in obese men." Physiology & behavior (2014).