|Maximal protein synthesis requires protein, but how much exactly you need will depend on your age - the older you are the more PWO protein you'll need.|
As a regular SuppVersity reader you will probably already think: "Where is the actual measurement of the fractional protein synthesis?" The unfortunate answer: It's not there.
Previous research had show that the ingestion of graded amounts of high-quality protein such as whey after resistance will maximize with "only" 20g of egg protein (Moore. 2009) or whey (Witard. 2014) in young men. Multiple studies in older adults (>60 years), on the other hand, suggest that they exhibit a lower anabolic signaling and MPS response to protein feeding, resistance exercise, and the combination of feeding and exercise when compared to young men (Cuthbertson. 2005; Fry. 2011; Burd. 2013). Scientists call this phenomenon age-related "anabolic resistance" (Yang. 2012b).
|Figure 1: In contrast to the fractional protein synthesis in the elderly, which increases with increasing amounts of protein, the FSR of young men shows a ceiling effect at 20g+ whey protein (Yang. 2012a; Moore. 2009)|
What is particularly relevant for the study at hand, and the previously criticized absence of actual MPS measurements is the fact that deficits in feeding induced p70S6K phosphorylation may at least partially underpin anabolic resistance in aged skeletal muscle (Cuthbertson. 2005), which is why measuring the p70S6K phosphorylation in older human subjects (mean age 71 years) in response to the graded ingestion of whey protein after a leg workout consisting of three sets of 8–10 repetitions of bilateral barbell smith rack squat, 45°leg press, and seated knee extensions at 80% of the subjects' predetermined 1R is not as irrelevant at it may initially have seemed.
Workout + supplements, that's the "whey to go" ;-)
The exercises were performed in a circuit manner with 1 min rest between each exercise and 3 min rest between subsequent sets, the exercise protocol took approximately 20 min to complete. Following completion of the exercise protocol, subjects were immediately provided with a fixed-volume (350 mL) beverage, containing a flavored noncaloric placebo, or oneof the four doses of whey protein concentrate (10 g, 20 g, 30 g, or 40 g).
|Figure 3: Higher protein intake = higher increase in p70S6K phosphorylation (left graph). This increase is linearly associated with intramuscular leucine levels (right graph | both from D’Souza. 2014)|
Moreover, the intramuscular BCAAs, and leucine in particular, appear to be important regulators of anabolic signaling in aged human muscle during post-exercise recovery via reversal of exercise-induced declines in intramuscular BCAAs.
- Burd, N. A., S. H. Gorissen, and L. J. van Loon. 2013. Anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis with aging. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 41:169–173.
- Churchward-Venne, T. A., N. A. Burd, C. J. Mitchell, D. W. West, A. Philp, G. R. Marcotte, et al. 2012. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men. J. Physiol. 590:2751–2765.
- D'Souza, Randall F., et al. 2014. Dose‐dependent increases in p70S6K phosphorylation and intramuscular branched‐chain amino acids in older men following resistance exercise and protein intake. Physiological Reports 2.8: e12112.
- Churchward-Venne, T. A., L. Breen, and S. M. Phillips. 2013a. Alterations in human muscle protein metabolism with aging: protein and exercise as countermeasures to offset sarcopenia. BioFactors 40:199–205.
- Churchward-Venne, T. A., C. H. Murphy, T. M. Longland, and S. M. Phillips. 2013b. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise
and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans. Amino Acids 45:231–240.
- Churchward-Venne, T. A., L. Breen, D. M. Di Donato, A. J. Hector, C. J. Mitchell, D. R. Moore, et al. 2014. Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial.
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- Cuthbertson, D., K. Smith, J. Babraj, G. Leese, T. Waddell, P. Atherton, et al. 2005. Anabolic signaling deficits underlie amino acid resistance of wasting, aging muscle. FASEB J. 19:422–424.
- Moore, D. R., M. J. Robinson, J. L. Fry, J. E. Tang, E. I. Glover, S. B. Wilkinson, et al. 2009. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:161–168.
- West, D. W., and K. Baar. 2013. May the Force move you: TSC-ing the mechanical activation of mTOR. J. Physiol. 591:4369–4370.
- West, D. W., N. A. Burd, J. E. Tang, D. R. Moore, A. W. Staples, A. M. Holwerda, et al. 2009a. Elevations in ostensibly anabolic hormones with resistance exercise enhance neither training-induced muscle hypertrophy nor strength of the elbow flexors. J. Appl. Physiol. 108:60–67 .
- West, D. W., G. W. Kujbida, D. R. Moore, P. Atherton, N. A. Burd, J. P. Padzik, et al. 2009b. Resistance exercise-induced increases in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signalling in young men. J. Physiol. 587:5239–5247.
- Witard, O. C., S. R. Jackman, L. Breen, K. Smith, A. Selby, and K. D. Tipton. 2014. Myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis rates subsequent to a meal in response to increasing doses of whey protein at rest and after resistance exercise. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 99:86–95
- Yang, Y., L. Breen, N. A. Burd, A. J. Hector, T. A. Churchward-Venne, A. R. Josse, et al. 2012a. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Br. J. Nutr. 108:1780–1788.
- Yang, Y., T. A. Churchward-Venne, N. A. Burd, L. Breen, M. A. Tarnopolsky, and S. M. Phillips. 2012b. Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Nutr. Metab. 9:57.