|Is there something to the good vs. bad fat shenanigan, after all?|
Reason enough to take a closer look at this and previous studies investigating the diet-induced thermogenic effects of PUFA-, MUFA- and SFA-rich meals and to conduct a reality check wrt to the question whether these differences actually matter - I mean, will you get and stay lean by upping your PUFA intake? Let's take a look!
In the initially mentioned study, Hui C. Clevenger, Amanda L. Kozimor, Chad M. Paton and Jamie A. Cooper explored the effect of three HF meals enriched with different fatty acids (MUFAs, PUFAs or SFAs) on metabolism in premenopausal women of normal weight. In that, the metabolic parameters of interest included postprandial energy expenditure (EE), which is then used to calculate DIT, and substrate oxidation, which included respiratory exchange ratio (RER), fat oxidation and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation.
Based on previous research in men of normal weight, the Texas Tech researchers hypothesized that the diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) and fat oxidation would be the highest after the PUFA- and MUFA-rich meals and lowest after the SFA-rich meal in premenopausal women - a result of which you already know that it was only partly confirmed.
|Figure 1: Diet-induced thermogenesis and respiratory exchange rate (higher RER = lower fatty acid oxidation vs. higher CHO oxidation) in the 5h after the test meal (Clevenger. 2014)|Table 1: Liquid meal nutrient composition
breakdown (Clevenger. 2014).
- The MUFA-rich meal was ‘base’ plus canola oil and extra virgin olive oil, with 42% of total energy coming from MUFA.
- Finally, the SFA-rich meal was ‘base’ plus butter, coconut oil and palm oil, with 40% of total energy coming from SFA.
High MUFA diets, on the other hand, have been shown to potentiate the effects of weight loss in obese NIDDM patients (Low. 1996). They are the major group of fatty acids in the one oil, everyone appears to agree that it's health (Olive oil). And last but not least, even the allegedly unhealthy omega-6s have been shown in randomized controlled to reduce liver fat and modestly improve metabolic status, without weight loss, when compared to high saturated fat diets (Bjermo. 2012).
All of these effects / this evidence could potentially be more important than the increase postprandial thermogenesis in the study at hand - so the ultimate question is: Does DIT even matter?
- Bjermo, Helena, et al. "Effects of n− 6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial." The American journal of clinical nutrition 95.5 (2012): 1003-1012.
- Clevenger, Hui C., et al. "Acute effect of dietary fatty acid composition on postprandial metabolism in women." Experimental physiology (2014): expphysiol-2013.
- Westerterp, Klaas R., et al. "Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat." The American journal of clinical nutrition 87.1 (2008): 132-135.