|After reading this article you won't have to be afraid of milk any longer.|
Well, in today's SuppVersity article, I am going to take a closer look at how "great" it actually is that studies like this hit the mainstream media, while less exciting, because beneficial studies on milk are not being mentioned at all ... unless, of course, it's the morally superior and allegedly healthier soy milk we are talking about *sarcastic laughter*
Before we get to a detailed analysis of the analysis, let's briefly remind ourselves of the type of data we are dealing with. Data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort (all female subjects) and Cohort of Swedish Men (all male subjects) that was complemented by data from food questionnaire that were send out back in the late nineteen eighties (women) and -nineties (men) along with the invitation to participate in the respective cohort studies.
|Figure 1: Flow chart of the study sample (Michaëlsson. 2014).|
Now, in the study by Thompson the subjects were asked about what they ate in the last 30 days. The data in the study at hand, however, is based on what subjects said about how often they drank milk in the past 365 days! A fact that is not likely to make the data any more accurate.
Furthermore, I assume that all of you will have heard of people who change their dietary habits over time, right? Well, for Michaëlsson et al. this is obviously news. Otherwise they would not have relied exclusively data that was gathered, when the subjects were enlisted for the cohort study in the late 1980s / 1990s, when they were trying to identify the reason that 15,541 of the men and women died over the course of the 10-20 year follow-up.
Speaking of 20 years. That's the time that passed between being enlisted and speculating about their daily food intake when the 90 303 women aged 39-74 were enlisted in the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the 31st of December 2010, which was used as an end point for the analysis.
|Figure 2: Mortality raters (raw data) according to milk intake in glasses / grams (Michaëlsson. 2014).|
|Figure 3: Adjusted predictions of urine 8-iso-PGF2α, a marker of oxidative stress, in 892 women (based on cross sectional data, mean age 70 years) and 700 men (Michaëlsson. 2014).|
|Homogenization may in fact be a problem. You find that's bogus? There is evidence that suggests that homogenization, not pasteurization is a serious problem | more.|
|Learn more about dairy from Liz in a previous SuppVersity article, i.e. "Dairy - The Good, Bad or Ugly?"|
- consumed significantly more energy on a daily basis (39% more in women, 24% more in men),
- consumed significantly more saturated (36% more in women) and total fat, and
- were significantly less likely to use bone building calcium supplements (15 % less in women).
- Allen, Naomi E., et al. "The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 11.11 (2002): 1441-1448.
- Bonthuis, M., et al. "Dairy consumption and patterns of mortality of Australian adults." European journal of clinical nutrition 64.6 (2010): 569-577.
- Elwood, Peter C., et al. "The survival advantage of milk and dairy consumption: an overview of evidence from cohort studies of vascular diseases, diabetes and cancer." Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27.6 (2008): 723S-734S.
- Goldbohm, R. Alexandra, et al. "Dairy consumption and 10-y total and cardiovascular mortality: a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands." The American journal of clinical nutrition (2011): ajcn-000430.
- Michaëlsson, Karl, et al. "Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies." BMJ 349 (2014): g6015.
- Thompson, Frances E., et al. "Cognitive research enhances accuracy of food frequency questionnaire reports: results of an experimental validation study." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102.2 (2002): 212-225.
- WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. "Toxicological evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food/prepared by the sixty-sixth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JEFCA)." (2006).