|The gut may be the missing piece to the Alzheimer's puzzle.|
In their latest study, scientists from the University of Queensland did now, for the first time, investigate the role your intestinal microbiota may play in the metabolism and production of orally ingested and newly formed polyphenolic compounds that will then mediate the attenuation of Alzheimer’s disease β-amyloid oligomerization.
While it is well-known hat the intestinal microbiota is known to actively convert many dietary polyphenols, including GSPE, to phenolic acids, there has as of now been very limited information on the bioavailability and bioactivity of GSPE-derived phenolic acid in the brain.
The latter, i.e. the ability of these compounds to actually make it into the brain, however, is of obvious importance for them to elicit any of those impressive effects that have previously been observed in the petri dish or with direct injection into the brain of rodents. To know, whether the intestinal metabolism of orally ingested grape seed polyphenol extracts (GPSEs) will impair or maybe even increase the uptake and metabolism and thus the effect of grape seed extracts is therefore of utmost importance.
|No, "Microbiomes", that's no typo. We host bacteria all over and in us (Cho. 2012)|
|Figure 1: Tentative metabolic route of GSPE PAC and molecular formulas of PAC derived phenolic acids (left | Wang. 2015); illustration of the general mechanism of action.|
- Balu, Muthaiya, et al. "Age-related oxidative protein damages in central nervous system of rats: modulatory role of grape seed extract." International journal of developmental neuroscience 23.6 (2005): 501-507.
- Baydar, Nilgun Gokturk, et al. "Determination of antibacterial effects and total phenolic contents of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extracts." International journal of food science & technology 41.7 (2006): 799-804.
- Bhattacharjee, Surjyadipta, and Walter J. Lukiw. "Alzheimer's disease and the microbiome." Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 7 (2013).
- Cho, Ilseung, and Martin J. Blaser. "The human microbiome: at the interface of health and disease." Nature Reviews Genetics 13.4 (2012): 260-270.
- Heintz, Caroline, and William Mair. "You are what you host: microbiome modulation of the aging process." Cell 156.3 (2014): 408-411.
- Huang, Wei-Shih, et al. "Association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dementia." Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 21.8 (2014): 1355-1358.
- Hill, James M., et al. "Pathogenic microbes, the microbiome, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)." Frontiers in aging neuroscience 6 (2014).
- Mancuso, Roberta, et al. "Titers of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Antibodies Positively Correlate with Grey Matter Volumes in Alzheimer's Disease." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 38.4 (2014): 741-745.
- Miklossy, Judith. "Emerging roles of pathogens in Alzheimer disease." Expert reviews in molecular medicine 13 (2011): e30.
- Poole, Sophie, et al. "Determining the presence of periodontopathic virulence factors in short-term postmortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 36.4 (2013): 665-677.
- Sarkaki, Alireza, Yaghoub Farbood, and Mohammad Badavi. "The effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on spatial memory in aged male rats." Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 23.4 (2007): 561.
- Shoemark, Deborah K., and Shelley J. Allen. "The Microbiome and Disease: Reviewing the Links between the Oral Microbiome, Aging, and Alzheimer's Disease." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 43.3 (2015): 725-738.
- Sivarooban, T., N. S. Hettiarachchy, and M. G. Johnson. "Physical and antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract, nisin, and EDTA incorporated soy protein edible films." Food Research International 41.8 (2008): 781-785.
- Wang, Yan-Jiang, et al. "Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-β deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer’s disease mouse." Neurotoxicity research 15.1 (2009): 3-14.
- Wang, Dongjie, et al. "Role of intestinal microbiota in the generation of polyphenol derived phenolic acid mediated attenuation of Alzheimer's disease β‐amyloid oligomerization." Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2015).