As Arciero et al. point out many "sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model" (Arciero. 2015). It is thus only logical that Paul J. Arciero, Vincent J. Miller, and Emery Ward wanted to "provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs) with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance" (Arciero. 2015).
Certainly about time, after alt, the contemporary athlete (competitive and noncompetitive) no longer adheres to the traditional, narrowly defined training regimen focused on only one mode of exercise (e.g., only endurance or only resistance), but instead adheres to a multimode, integrative training model.
"Consuming increased amounts of dietary protein (20–30 grams/serving or 25–35% of total kcal intake), mostly from whey protein sources, more often (4–6 meals meals/day) throughout the day (every 3 hours) decreases abdominal fat and increases postprandial thermogenesis and lean body mass compared to traditional protein and meal frequency intakes. These body composition changes may directly lead to enhanced athletic performance. Importantly, these beneficial improvements are achieved even though total kcals consumed are identical to a traditional feeding pattern.
If you want to learn more about the researchers' previous study on "Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit", you can may want to read this SuppVersity Article from September 2014
The data from our laboratory indicate, for the first time, that macronutrient composition (increased dietary protein), nutrient quality (low glycemic index and unpro cessed carbohydrates), and frequency of eating (4–6x per day) are more important than total energy intake to improve body composition and postprandial thermogenesis and thus athletic performance (Arciero. 2013)" (Arciero. 2015).Next on the list of suggestions Arciero et al. compiled for their PRISE protocol are supplements. Supplements that work, like creatine, caffeine (0.15-0.3 mg/kg body weight), sodium bicarbonate (0.3g/kg body weight), and beta alanine (for sprinting) and supplements that are supposed to work, like BCAAs. In addition to the classic ergogenics, Arciero et al. discuss a number of supplements to be taken during the recovery period. Since these are a bit less known than the previously discussed classics, it may be worth taking a closer look at each of them:
- Curcumin - Why? For general health and to minimize DOMS, and oxidative damage. How? 90–250 mg daily best ingested with agents to improve oral bioavailabilty or as a bio-enhanced formulation like Theracurmin (Sasaki. 2011)
- Omega 3s - Why? To reduce DOMS, to augment protein synthesis (works only in old insulin resistant individuals | Smith. 2011). How? At doses of 1-2g/day "only", because "fish oil consumption at higher levels (>4g per day) may increase the risk of bleeding from decreased adherence of blood platelets" (Arciero. 2015).
- Tart Cherry - Why? To improve recovery by hitherto not fully elucidated mechanisms. How? 45-120 cherries per day or 12–16 oz of tart cherry juice.
Next on Arciero et al.'s list are agents to improve endurance performance. The corresponding list comprises beetroot juice or nitrates, carbohydrate supplements (to fuel your workouts) and resistant starches, as well as glycerol and electrolytes (to rehydrate). In conjunction with caffeine, carnitine, fiber, MCTs, and capsinoids as supplements for "Energy Metabolism and Body Composition" the list or "PRISE supplements is not just complete, but actually pretty valuable (you can learn more about the agents by clicking on the names).References:
- Arciero, Paul J., et al. "Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit." Obesity 21.7 (2013): 1357-1366.
- Arciero, Paul J., Vincent J. Miller, and Emery Ward. "Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance." Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2015 (2015).
- Sasaki, Hiroki, et al. "Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability." Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34.5 (2011): 660-665.
- Smith, Gordon I., et al. "Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial." The American journal of clinical nutrition 93.2 (2011): 402-412.