Saturday, May 9, 2015

PRISE - Protein & Supplement Timing, Resistance & Interval Training, Stretching & Endurance Training: Principles to Nourish Yourself and Promote Athletic Performance

If your goal is to avoid the Dad or Mum body or you want to be a jack-of-all-traits fitness athlete, the training protocol Arciero et al. (2015) suggest in their latest review is for you. If you want to be a power-lifter, bodybuilder, sprinter, footballer or whatever else, the recommendation to diversify your regimen is good, but the exact protocols may be too unspecific.
Ok, let's get that straight: I don't like the word "optimal" and I doubt that there's anything "optimal" about general suggestions as they are provided in a recent paper by scientists from the Skidmore College and the A. T. Still University (Arciero. 2015). That doesn't mean, though, that the PRISE concept, which incorporates timed-daily protein (P) intake and all four of the major fitness components, i.e. resistance (R), interval sprints (I), stretching (S), and endurance (E) training was bogus to begin with.

As Arciero et al. point out many "sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model" (Arciero. 2015). It is thus only logical that Paul J. Arciero, Vincent J. Miller, and Emery Ward wanted to "provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs) with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance" (Arciero. 2015).
What is missing from the suggestions is advice to periodize appropriately!

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Certainly about time, after alt, the contemporary athlete (competitive and noncompetitive) no longer adheres to the traditional, narrowly defined training regimen focused on only one mode of exercise (e.g., only endurance or only resistance), but instead adheres to a multimode, integrative training model.
Table 1: PRISE protocol (Arciero. 2015) | Notes: P: plant-based; A: animal-based; RPE: rating of perceived effort; RT: resistance training; Sprint: sprint interval training; C: choice of exercise modality; WB: whole body exercise; S: stretching exercise; X: exercise day. Exercise modalities available for C include walking, jogging, running, cycling, swimming, elliptical, rowing, rollerblading, and cross-country skiing.
A model that may, but does not necessarily have to look like the PRISE protocol Arciero et al. outlined in Table 1. Next to the necessary progression from a singlemode to a multimode regimen, the emphasis on protein as the "arguably the most crucial nutrient for general health and athletic performance"(Arciero. 2015) is the 2nd hallmark feature of the PRISE protocol:
If you want to learn more about the researchers' previous study on "Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit", you can may want to read this SuppVersity Article from September 2014
"Consuming increased amounts of dietary protein (20–30 grams/serving or 25–35% of total kcal intake), mostly from whey protein sources, more often (4–6 meals meals/day) throughout the day (every 3 hours) decreases abdominal fat and increases postprandial thermogenesis and lean body mass compared to traditional protein and meal frequency intakes. These body composition changes may directly lead to enhanced athletic performance. Importantly, these beneficial improvements are achieved even though total kcals consumed are identical to a traditional feeding pattern. 
The data from our laboratory indicate, for the first time, that macronutrient composition (increased dietary protein), nutrient quality (low glycemic index and unpro cessed carbohydrates), and frequency of eating (4–6x per day) are more important than total energy intake to improve body composition and postprandial thermogenesis and thus athletic performance (Arciero. 2013)" (Arciero. 2015).
Next on the list of suggestions Arciero et al. compiled for their PRISE protocol are supplements. Supplements that work, like creatine, caffeine (0.15-0.3 mg/kg body weight), sodium bicarbonate (0.3g/kg body weight), and beta alanine (for sprinting) and supplements that are supposed to work, like BCAAs.  In addition to the classic ergogenics, Arciero et al. discuss a number of supplements to be taken during the recovery period. Since these are a bit less known than the previously discussed classics, it may be worth taking a closer look at each of them:
  • Figure 1: Curcumin has a very low bioavailability. It is thus one of the few cases, where buying one of the cheap trademark formulations like Theracurmin actually makes sense (Sasaki. 2011). That's not the case for gingr, omega-3s or tart cherries, all of which have a sufficient oral bioavailability and can be ingested in form of foods or regular supplements.
    Ginger - Why? To aid recovery from muscle-damaging exercise. How? 2-3g of ginger daily, since only chronic administration will aid recovery
  • Curcumin - Why? For general health and to minimize DOMS, and oxidative damage. How? 90–250 mg daily best ingested with agents to improve oral bioavailabilty or as a bio-enhanced formulation like Theracurmin (Sasaki. 2011) 
  • Omega 3s - Why? To reduce DOMS, to augment protein synthesis (works only in old insulin resistant individuals | Smith. 2011). How? At doses of 1-2g/day "only", because "fish oil consumption at higher levels (>4g per day) may increase the risk of bleeding from decreased adherence of blood platelets" (Arciero. 2015).
  • Tart Cherry - Why? To improve recovery by hitherto not fully elucidated mechanisms. How? 45-120 cherries per day or 12–16 oz of tart cherry juice.
Next on Arciero et al.'s list are agents to improve endurance performance. The corresponding list comprises beetroot juice or nitrates, carbohydrate supplements (to fuel your workouts) and resistant starches, as well as glycerol and electrolytes (to rehydrate). In conjunction with caffeine, carnitine, fiber, MCTs, and capsinoids as supplements for "Energy Metabolism and Body Composition" the list or "PRISE supplements is not just complete, but actually pretty valuable (you can learn more about the agents by clicking on the names).
Table 2: Overview of the resistance training protocol Arciero et al. (2015) suggest as part of their not exactly revolutionary "PRISE" protocol.
Bottom line: There's no question that the suggestions Arciero et al. make in their latest review are useful. It is yet highly questionable that their "PRISE" protocol is "optimal" for anyone. If you look at the "resistance training" suggestions in Table 2 on the right hand side, it should be obvious that someone striving for maximal muscle or strength wouldn't be well-advised to follow the resistance training workout on the right. That doesn't mean that it wasn't useful, though, if your goal is a lean Men's Health Cover physique and you already have the amount of muscle it takes doing varied mix of dynamic warm-up, footwork and agility, resistance and power exercises and core exercises may yet be a good choice to get and stay in shape - specifically, if you combine it - as suggested in Table 1 - with "protein pacing" (or timing), HIIT, stretching and regular steady state cardio like jogging, or high(er) intensity walking outdoors or on the treadmill | Comment on Facebook!
References:
  • Arciero, Paul J., et al. "Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit." Obesity 21.7 (2013): 1357-1366.
  • Arciero, Paul J., Vincent J. Miller, and Emery Ward. "Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance." Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2015 (2015).
  • Sasaki, Hiroki, et al. "Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability." Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34.5 (2011): 660-665.
  • Smith, Gordon I., et al. "Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial." The American journal of clinical nutrition 93.2 (2011): 402-412.