|What's more muscle ana & fat catabolic?|
More specifically, the subjects in the PRISE (vs. RISE = only exercise) arm of the study lost more more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and fat mass (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively | read old FT).
The purpose of Arciero's newest study was now to "extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP [whey protein] supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals" (Arciero. 2016). To this ends, the scientists recruited thirty weight-matched volunteers who were prescribed either RISE training and a P diet derived from whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or RISE training a P diet with food protein being the major protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Both interventions involved the previously discussed ingestion of six small meals, each day containing ~20–25 g of a high quality protein source.
|Table 1: Sample Menus from the FP and WP nutritional intervention diet plans during the 16 week PRISE intervention. Menus were similar in macronutrient distribution (Arciero. 2016).|
"For all meals, participants were provided with a menu of foods from which to choose. Examples included milk, Greek yogurt, eggs, lean meats, fish, poultry, and specific plant sources, including legumes, nuts, and seeds. The number of recommended daily calories to consume was estimated to match the caloric requirements of each individual as measured by resting metabolic rate and measured/estimated physical activity level but was ad libitum, and not energy-restricted. Both groups followed the same protocol in terms of the timing of meals: all meals were evenly spaced throughout the day and one meal was consumed within one hour of waking in the morning and another two hours prior to bed. On exercise days, both groups consumed a protein meal (20–25 g) within 60 min [PWO, as bros'd call it ;-] after completion of exercise. For WP, they were required to consume this meal as 20–25 g of whey protein giving them a total of three servings of whey on exercise days. For FP, this required a protein-rich food meal of 20–25 g. On non-exercise days, both groups consumed similar amounts of total protein at each of their six meals per day" (my emphasis in Arciero. 2016).Needless to say that all subjects in both groups participated in the same multiple exercise training regimen as described previously (Arciero. 2014). Briefly:
Figure 1: CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) flow chart of participants during the study intervention (Arciero. 2016).
- Subjects underwent four exercise sessions / week, and the sessions rotated through the four types of exercise, such that each of the four exercises was performed one day/week.
- The resistance (R) training sessions were completed within 60 min and consisted of a dynamic warm-up, footwork and agility, lower and upper body resistance, and core exercises performed at a resistance to induce muscular fatigue in 10–15 repetitions and for two to three sets (in other words: they trained to failure).
- A 30 s recovery was provided between sets and a 60 s recovery was allowed between different exercises (and they still grew | cf recent post on short rest).
- The sprint interval (I) training sessions were completed within 40 min and consisted of 5–10 sets of 30–60 s of all-out exercise (remember "all-out" for an overweight untrained individual is miles away from "all-out" for an athlete, though) interspersed with 2–4 min of rest after each exercise. Participants were allowed to perform the sprints using any mode of exercise (treadmill, elliptical machine, stationary bikes, swimming, snowshoeing, cycling, rollerblading, etc.).
- The stretching/yoga/pilates regimen was based on traditional yoga poses with modern elements of pilates training for a total body stretching, flexibility, and strengthening workout. All sessions were completed within 60 min and were led by a certified yoga instructor (PJA). It should be pointed out that it is not clear how important this part of the regimen was, but previous research indicates that yoga can actively reduce the ill effects of chronically elevated cortisol down (Kamei. 2000) and may thus help restore the natural "downs", which are required for the fat burning (yes, you read me right!) cortisol spikes.
- Finally, endurance exercise training was performed for 60 min or longer at a moderate pace (60% of maximal effort). Participants were allowed to choose from a variety of aerobic activities, including walking, jogging, cycling, rowing, swimming, etc.
|Table 2: Overview of the subjects' workout schedule (Arciero. 2016).|
|Figure 2: Changes in body composition fro pre- to post-study (Arciero. 2016)|