|Bad news bro: Whey will shed significant amounts of trunk and android fat only in conjunction with 16 weeks of resistance training. No matter what the ads promise.|
Why's that? With different training protocols focusing on strength endurance and strength-hypertrophy-power, and three supplementation groups with either protein (37.5g whey concentrate), carbohydrate (34.5g maltodextrin) or a combination of both, whey and maltodextrin.
All subjects were mixed with non-caloric sugar-free drinks (FUN Light provided by Orkla Foods Finland, Turku, Finland) depending on the week and subject’s preference (either strawberry,
forest fruit, pomegranate-strawberry, apple-pear or raspberry-lemon).
Otherwise, the subjects were advised to eat normal recommended mixed meal based on the Finnish
Nutrition Recommendations 2014 (see below) 1–2 hours after the exercise bout.
In combination with the workout routine outlined in Tables 1 & 2, the dietary + supplement intervention lead to significant increased fat-free mass, muscle size and strength and that independent of post-exercise nutrient intake (P < 0.05).
"Subjects kept 4-day food diaries during the second block of the 12-week RT period. Dietary intake was recorded over three weekdays and one weekend day [not ideal, but better than nothing].
Download the >600 page NNR2012 for free.
The researchers gave subjects both verbal and written nutritional recommendations based on the Finnish Nutrition Recommendations 2014. As a rule, these follow the recommendations for the Nordic countries in Europe pub lished in Autumn 2013 (NNR2012) and are very close to USDA and HHS dietary guidelines (2010) for normal healthy adults. The subjects were instructed on how to report nutritional intake in the diaries.
Nutrients provided by the supplements were included in the analysis. The food diaries were analyzed by nutrient analysis software (Nutri-Flow; Flow-team Oy, Oulu, Finland)" (Hulmi. 2015).
|Body composition changes in Lockwood et al. (top | 2016) and effects of adding small amounts of hydro whey on anti-oxidant activity of a lemon whey beverage (bottom | Athira. 2015).|
How come? I guess there are a few potential reasons here, all of which eventually relate to the peculiar (small) peptide structure of the practically pre-digested whey protein. One being the peptides' glutathione boosting anti-oxidant prowess, which is way greater for hydrolysates vs. concentrates (Pacheco. 2005). It could also be the peptides ACE-inhibitory activity (Tavares. 2011; Sawada. 2016), which has been linked to fat loss in rodent studies (Weisinger. 2009) and preliminary evidence of improvements in body composition in human studies (Carter. 2005). As well as evidence of its ability to improve glucose management (Adams. 2016).
|Figure 1: Changes in body fat (top), and performance measures (bottom); green = there are stat. significant inter-group differences; grey = there are no stat. sign. inter-group differences (Hulmi. 2015).|
|Figure 2: If you're still thinking about the concentrate vs. hydrolysate study, here are some hints on what may contribute to the difference Lockwood et al. have reported only recently (Lockwood. 2016).|
- Adams, R. L., and K. S. Broughton. "Insulinotropic Effects of Whey: Mechanisms of Action, Recent Clinical Trials, and Clinical Applications." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 69.1 (2016): 56-63.
- Athira, Syamala, et al. "Production and characterisation of whey protein hydrolysate having antioxidant activity from cheese whey." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95.14 (2015): 2908-2915.
- Carter, Christy S., et al. "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition intervention in elderly persons: effects on body composition and physical performance." The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 60.11 (2005): 1437-1446.
- Lockwood, Christopher M., et al. "Effects of Hydrolyzed Whey versus Other Whey Protein Supplements on the Physiological Response to 8 Weeks of Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Males." Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2016): 1-12.
- Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo, and Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri. "Effect of different hydrolysates of whey protein on hepatic glutathione content in mice." Journal of medicinal food 8.3 (2005): 337-342.
- Sawada, Yoko, et al. "Milk‐derived peptide Val‐Pro‐Pro (VPP) inhibits obesity‐induced adipose inflammation via an angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) dependent cascade." Molecular nutrition & food research 59.12 (2015): 2502-2510.
- Tavares, Tânia, et al. "Novel whey-derived peptides with inhibitory effect against angiotensin-converting enzyme: in vitro effect and stability to gastrointestinal enzymes." Peptides 32.5 (2011): 1013-1019.
- Weisinger, Richard S., et al. "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition lowers body weight and improves glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice maintained on a high fat diet." Physiology & behavior 98.1 (2009): 192-197.