|No, it wasn't a button like this which made the subjects happy.|
But let's not go too fast, here. The subjects had volunteered to participate in the study and were non-randomly assigned to a fasting (FG) and a non-fasting (NFG) group (according to their individual plans | Nugraha. 2016).
To be eligible into the FG, participants had to: (1) be healthy, (2) be older than 18 years of age, (3) intend to fast the whole month of Ramadan, (4) have fasted during Ramadan at least once before, (5) understand the German or English language. For the NFG, all subjects had to meet the criteria of the FG, except that they would not be fasting. Furthermore (and that's IMHO a pity) The NFG participants were assessed only at T1 and T3. That's in contrast to their peers in FG, where participants were assessed at four different points: one week before Ramadan (T1), mid-Ramadan (T2), the last days of Ramadan (T3), and one week after Ramadan (T4).
|Examples of effects of intermittent fasting on different organ systems.|
Limit inflammation, reduced oxidative stress and cellular damage, improved circulating glucose, reduced blood pressure, alteration in IGF-1 levels, improve metabolic efficiency and body composition, including significant reduction in body fat and weight in obese individuals, reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels, prevention or reversal of type 2 diabetes, as well as slow its progression, improved immune function, and shift stem cells from a dormant state to state of self-renewal, improved pancreatic function, insulin and leptin levels and insulin/leptin sensitivity, normalized ghrelin levels, reproduction of some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with physical exercise, protection against cardiovascular disease, modulation of the levels of visceral fat, boost of mitochondrial energy efficiency and protection of striatal neurons against mitochondrial toxicity, elimination of sugar cravings as the body adapts to burning fat instead of sugar, promotion of human growth hormone production (HGH), lower triglyceride levels, elevated production of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), stimulation of neurogenesis and triggering of brain chemicals that protect against changes associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, enhanced dopamine overflow in striatum, attenuated age-related decrease in cardiac synaptic terminal norepinephrine uptake, attenuation of age-related loss of cortical dendritic spines, protection against seizure-induced hippocampal damage, memory impairment and focal ischemic brain injury, enhanced learning and motor function in models of aging, slow age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons while aging, and the list will probably expand further in the years to come (Uher. 2016).
|Figure 2: Mood and sleepiness show a similar pattern over the course of the trial (Nugraha. 2016).|
|Table 1: Body composition before, during, and after Ramadan (Nugraha. 2016).|
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- Nugraha, et al. "Effect of Ramadan fasting on fatigue, mood, sleepiness, and health-related quality of life of healthy young men in summer time in Germany: A prospective controlled study."Appetite - Available online 24 December 2016 | In Press, Accepted Manuscript
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