|Image 1: The Meet the Fats campaign is part of the stultification... ah I mean educational program of the American Heart Association|
New evidence against Trans is provided by two teams of experts, one from Europe (Bendson. 2011) and the Middle East (Dhibi. 2011). In what I personally would consider battery, Nathalie T. Bendson and her colleagues from Denmark and France assigned 52 (formerly ;-) healthy women randomly to receive
either 15.7g partially hydrogenated soybean oil or control oil without any industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) on a daily basis. The results were not life-threatening, but certainly not desirable:
After 16 weeks, IP-TFA intake increased baseline-adjusted serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by 12% more in the IP-TFA group compared with controls. Plasma soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 were also increased by IP-TFA.With TNF-alpha's role in the modulation of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell function as well as endothelial cell-blood cell interaction and "the importance of such alterations for vascular dysfunction, the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis" (Kleinbongard. 2010), Bendson et al.'s asssumption that
the IP-TFA-associated increase in cardiovascular risk beyond the adverse effect explained by changes in blood lipids may be partly due to induction of systemic low-grade inﬂammationis possibly correct. Nevertheless, the jury is still out on how bad TNF-alpha actually is, as its role in cardiovascular disease is actually quite ambiguous with the aforementioned low-grade inflammation on the one hand and its ability to protect your heart by ischemic conditioning on the other hand.
|Figure 1: Trans fat content of fresh soy oil, oxidized soy oi and margarine (data based on Dhibi. 2011).|
|Figure 2: Relative changes in transaminases (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogensase (LDH) in rats after 4 weeks on diets containing 20% fresh soybean oil, oxidized soybean oil or margarine (data calculated based on Dhibi. 2011)|
|Figure 3: Correlation between fatty acid isomers in the diet and oxidative stress |
parameters in rat’s liver and plasma hepato-specific enzymes (data based on Dhibi. 2011).
|Image 2: Rat liver histology.|