|Image 1: Itadori (Japanese Knotweed) and selected varieties of red wine are the best yet vastly 'underdosed' sources of resveratrol (see red box, below)|
Rodents or petri dishes? Humans would be too expensive...
Compared with the aformentioned in vitro data, the numbers and gene essays in a recently published study by scientists from the University of Alberta are actually of great practical relevance (Dolinsky. 2012), because Dolinsky et al. administered their resveratrol orally* (4g in 1kg chow) to healthy rats and - what's even more important for the average trainee - 50% of those rats were exercised for 60min, 5x per week on a treadmill (10m/min to 20m/min; cf. Fenning. 2003) for 12 weeks.
|Figure 1: Resveratrol content of selected red-wines and Itadori (Japanese knotweed) tea (based on Burns. 2005; equivalent consumption based on dose used in Dolinsky. 2012)|
|Figure 2: Body weight (in g), time to exhaustion (in min) and distance covered (in m) during a treadmill exercise test at the end of the 12-week study period (based on Dolinsky. 2012)|
|Image 2 (ADAM): Resveratrol has already been shown to prevent pathological hypertrophy of the heart muscle by AMPK / AKT modulation (Chan. 2008)|
- greater strength gains +18% tibialis anterior twitch force and +58% and +22% tetanic and twitch force, respectively, in soleus vs. training alone
- improved cardiac function as assessed by statistical significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction and decreased isovolumic relaxation time, as well as increased ratio of the peak mitral ﬂow velocity (E-wave) to the peak velocity of the late ﬁlling wave of atrial contraction
- decreased cardiac stress due to a -30% reduction in left ventricular wall stress vs. training alone
- higher VO2 ~10% during the active period
- increased PPAR signalling and fatty acid metabolism in the heart (+8.8% and +10.3% respectively; p < 0.00001)
Two days on High Fat Diet Increase the Activity of Irisin Releasing Transcription Factor PGC1-α") it is obvious that, taken at the right dosage, resveratrol is not the supplemental non-starter everyone is let to believe who spent $30 for 60 100mg caps of resveratrol and took a 3-day dose (3x 2g!) spread across a whole month - obviously without the desired outcomes result.
At the moment resveratrol is still an expensive toy for scientists
|Table 1: Significant changes in heart muscle gene expression (based on Dolinsky. 2012)|
- Brown JM, Rudel LL. Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 inhibition and the metabolic syndrome: considerations for future drug discovery. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2010 Jun;21(3):192-7.
- Burns J, Yokota T, Ashihara H, Lean ME, Crozier A. Plant foods and herbal sources of resveratrol. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 22;50(11):3337-40.
- Chan AY, Dolinsky VW, Soltys CL, Viollet B, Baksh S, Light PE, Dyck JR. Resveratrol inhibits cardiac hypertrophy via AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt. J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 29;283(35):24194-201. Epub 2008 Jun 18.
- Chen LL, Zhang HH, Zheng J, Hu X, Kong W, Hu D, Wang SX, Zhang P. Resveratrol attenuates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by influencing skeletal muscle lipid transport and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial β-oxidation. Metabolism. 2011 Nov;60(11):1598-609.
- Dolinsky VW, Jones KE, Sidhu RS, Haykowsky M, Czubryt MP, Gordon T, Dyck JR. Improvements in Skeletal Muscle Strength and Cardiac Function Induced by Resveratrol Contribute to Enhanced Exercise Performance in Rats. J Physiol. 2012 Apr 2. [Epub ahead of print] Epub 2011 May 31.
- Fenning A, Harrison G, Dwyer D, Rose'Meyer R, Brown L. Cardiac adaptation to endurance exercise in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Sep;251(1-2):51-9.
- Momken I, Stevens L, Bergouignan A, Desplanches D, Rudwill F, Chery I, Zahariev A, Zahn S, Stein TP, Sebedio JL, Pujos-Guillot E, Falempin M, Simon C, Coxam V, Andrianjafiniony T, Gauquelin-Koch G, Picquet F, Blanc S. Resveratrol prevents the wasting disorders of mechanical unloading by acting as a physical exercise mimetic in the rat. FASEB J. 2011 Oct;25(10):3646-60.
- Sen GC. Novel functions of interferon-induced proteins. Semin Cancer Biol. 2000 Apr;10(2):93-101.
- Vitaglione P, Sforza S, Galaverna G, Ghidini C, Caporaso N, Vescovi PP, Fogliano V, Marchelli R. Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 May;49(5):495-504.
- Wenzel E, Somoza V. Metabolism and bioavailability of trans-resveratrol. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 May;49(5):472-81.