|Image 1: Is the US starving for sulfur amino acids and cholesterol?|
A fat burning suppository? Wtf....
I see you are shocked, well so was I, but the alternative would be that you take a syringe and... ah, let's just assume they came out with a suppository which could deliver the same 0.66, 2.0, 6.66 and 20.0 mmol (0.36, 1.08, 3.58, 10.75 g) of sodium taurocholate the ten obese type II diabetic volunteers (!) in the study by Adrian et al. received rectally via a silastic cannula in 20 ml of 1% (wt/vol.) carboxymethyl cellulose over a period of 1 min after an overnight fast - a small injection with profound effects:
|Figure 1: Response of insulin, blood glucose and GLP-1 to rectal administration of different doses of taurocholate to obese type-2 diabetics (based on Adrian. 2012)|
- dose-dependent increases in plasma concentrations of active GLP-1 and total PYY (not shown in figure 1, but increase paralleled GLP-1) both of which were statistically highly significant (p<0.001) with the highest dose of taurocholate leading to a 7.2x increase in active GLP-1 and a 4.2x increase in PYY
- at the same time plasma insulin increased by 2.6x and the glucose levels decreased progressively over 60 min by up to 3.8 mmol/l
|Figure 2: Food intake 75min after taurocholate administration at different doses; subjects were provided with their favorite meals and advised to eat to satiety (based on Adrian. 2012)|
I can control my appetite I don't need these tools
I can see that some of you are now giving a sniff at those gluttonous fatsos who are not able to control their appetite and therefor simply cannot lose weight and I guess for a small minority of dieters that may actually be the case. The emerging research on the far-reaching metabolic effects of the so-called "satiety hormones" PYY and GLP-1 does yet clearly suggest that gluttony is only part of the reason why the efforts of dieters all around the globe fail time and again. And it is therefore more than reasonable to assume that this satiety induced caloric reduction, contrary to the common will-power based mild to profound starvation, will actually produce the expected weight loss results as long as it can be sustained over weeks and months.
|Figure 3: It's as easy as can be - work against your body, starve yourself, never eat to satiety and lose (top) vs. work with your body, use gut-brain-axis (GBA) modulators and win (bottom)|
Taurocholate suppositories, taurine, cholesterol, statins and yet another reason we are fat
|Image 2: What do panic buying and overeating have in common? In both cases the affected people or their bodies expect that there is going to be a shortage in the future and they got to squirrel goods or nutrients away.|
The result, a mismatch between energy intake and energy sensing / satiety, will not just have you eat, eat and... eat! as if there was no tomorrow (see image 2), it will also have your body squirrel away every calorie it can save right into your evergrowing adipose tissue. You develop diabetes and hyperlipidemia and your doctor who beliefs in "medical standards" throws a bunch of statins at you. The statins reduce your cholesterol further. There is less substrate for bile acid production. The mismatch becomes even greater, your energy metabolism is tumbling and you are hungrier than ever before... the perfect storm, it's raging!
"Where is the evidence?"
|Image 3: What happens when you feed rats 375x more cholesterol than usual, from whole eggs of course? Right, their lipid profile improves! How do you know, did you read my previous blogpost on the study by Yang et al. (Yang. 2012)? If you didn't click on the image to get there.|
- Adrian TE, Gariballa S, Parekh KA, Thomas SA, Saadi H, Al Kaabi J, Nagelkerke N, Gedulin B, Young AA. Rectal taurocholate increases L cell and insulin secretion, and decreases blood glucose and food intake in obese type 2 diabetic volunteers. Diabetologia. 2012 Jun 14.
- Brosnan JT, Brosnan ME. The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1636S-1640S.
- De la Puerta C, Arrieta FJ, Balsa JA, Botella-Carretero JI, Zamarrón I, Vázquez C. Taurine and glucose metabolism: a review. Nutr Hosp. 2010 Nov-Dec;25(6):910-9.
- Hansen SH. The role of taurine in diabetes and the development of diabetic complications. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2001 Sep-Oct;17(5):330-46.
- Mühlfeld A, Kubitz R, Dransfeld O, Häussinger D, Wettstein M. Taurine supplementation induces multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump expression in rats and prevents endotoxin-induced cholestasis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 May 1;413(1):32-40.
- Nardelli TR, Ribeiro RA, Balbo SL, Vanzela EC, Carneiro EM, Boschero AC, Bonfleur ML. Taurine prevents fat deposition and ameliorates plasma lipid profile in monosodium glutamate-obese rats. Amino Acids. 2011 Oct;41(4):901-8.
- Park T, Lee K. Dietary taurine supplementation reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol or a cholesterol-free diet. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;442:319-25.
- Stephan ZF, Armstrong MJ, Hayes KC. Bile lipid alterations in taurine-depleted monkeys. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Feb;34(2):204-10.
- Tolhurst G, Heffron H, Lam YS, Parker HE, Habib AM, Diakogiannaki E, Cameron J, Grosse J, Reimann F, Gribble FM. Short-chain fatty acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion via the G-protein-coupled receptor FFAR2. Diabetes. 2012 Feb;61(2):364-71.
- Yang F, Ma M, Xu J, Yu X, Qiu N. An egg-enriched diet attenuates plasma lipids and mediates cholesterol metabolism of high-cholesterol fed rats. Lipids. 2012 Mar;47(3):269-77. Epub 2012 Jan 11.