Saturated fat < > gut interaction sheds a dark shadow on the "benign fat of our ancestors"(Mani. 2013) -- According to a study from the University of Iowa, the endotoxemia response to a meal, i.e. the amount of inflammatory innately produced toxins from your gut that enter circulation in the postprandial phase, is increased in response to a meal that's high in saturated fat.
|Figure 1: Endotoxin permeablity and changes in serum endotoxin levels in the hours subsequent to the ingestion of a test meal containing either 50ml coconut (CO), vegetable (VO) and fish oil (FO) in otherwise healthy pigs (Mani. 2013).|
|Click here to read more about a previous study that shed some light on the effects of certain nutrients on the gut microbiome.|
What's also interesting is that previous rodent studies yielded different results. Laugerette et al., for example, found a similar increase as Mani et al. in mice, but in response to canola and sunflower oil (Laugerette. 2012). This raises the question in how far the effects may be mediated by the baseline diet and the corresponding bacterial composition of the small and large intestine (or species specific effects?). After all, the gram negative bacteria of which scientists believe that they increase in response to high fat diets have the highest endotoxin content. They populate the distal ileum and the colon and are supposedly the main sources for circulating endotoxin (Berg. 1999) - if you had less of them to begin with, you are not as likely to suffer from an acute influx of endotoxins in response to the ingestion of SFAs. Moreover, what it the endotoxins were released in response to the antimicrobial effects of coconut oil?
I guess, there is still much to learn here and I hope you are aware that the SuppVersity is the place you can do just that: Learn something new everyday!
Caffeine's effect on muscular fatigability during maximal vs. supramaximal stimulation
|There is no question that caffeine can have beneficial effects on exercise performance - whether every athlete benefits to a similar degree is yet as questionable as the "ideal" dosage to elicit optimal fat loss effects without the negative side effects that are associated with the chronic overconsumption of any type of stimulant (click here to learn more about the narrow margin between "just enough" and "already too much")|
Whether or not this is important for the average strength trainee remains questionable. After all the "endurance" part of your regimen is usually conducted at submaximal intensities and weheter you can do one interval more or less probably doesn't matter as well. For a professional cyclist participating in a time trial, those 17.6% may well make the difference between victory and defeat. On the other hand, there is more to "endurance" than local muscular fatique, so that caffeines effects on the central nervous system will at least ameliorate, if not totally counter these potential downsides.
Lactoferrin, an overlooked visceral fat annihilator?I don't even know if all of you are familiar with the globular glycoprotein lactoferrin that is widely represented in various secretory fluids, saliva, tears, nasal secretions and - above all - colostrum. It has a very important role in the immune defenses of your body and according to a recent review by Japanese scientists, it does also exert direct lipolytic (breakdown and release of fat from) and anti-adipogenic effects in vitro and in vivo.
|All of you who read the "Ask Dr. Andro" installment on Milk & Colostrum should at least have heard of lactoferrin before. It's one of the anti-microbial, anti-fungal and immune modulating molecules in the white elixir of mammalian life that's also suppose to exert antagonist effects on the opioid receptors (read more).|
Perceived recovery 48h after a workout correlates with free testosterone levels(Sikorski. 2013) -- Yeah, I know the whole free testosterone after a workout discussion is pathetic, but what about free testosterone levels 48h hours after the workout, i.e. amidst the hot recovery phase? According to a soon to be published study in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research a standardized test to elicit the perceived recovery (PRS) appears to be surprisingly accurate to predict the drop in free testosterone after a session of high volume resistance training designed to elicit a large amount of fatigue and muscle damage.
"All subjects participated in a high volume resistance training session consisting of 3 sets of 10-12 repetition maximum loads for each of the following exercises: full squats, bench press, deadlifts, pullups, bent over rows, dips, shoulder press, barbell curls and triceps extensions. Rest periods were 1 minute between sets, and 2 minutes between exercises." (Sikorski. 2013)The scientists from the University of Tampa recruited 35 highly resistance-trained subjects (aged 21.3 ± 1.9 years) with an average squat, bench press, and deadlift of 1.7± 0.2, 1.38 ± 1.9 and 2.07 ± 2.7 times their bodyweight for their study. The subjects had a minimum experience of 3 years of resistance training and were thus probably way more capable to access their own recovery status than the average Jane or Joe after with a dozen of irregular workouts under her / his belt. Blood analyses, soreness and PRS tests were conducted at before, immediately after and 48h after the workout (total weight lifted in the training session was 16,353 ± 3,691.8 kg) and revealed ...
- a significant increases in leg, chest and arm soreness from pre to post exercise,
- a significant increases in creatine kinase (CK; measure of muscle damage) from 189.4 ± 100.2 to 512 ± 222.7 U/L (p < 0.05),
- no changes in cortisol, testosterone, and free testosterone from pre to immediately post workout,
- a significant moderate, and inverse relationship between leg soreness and PRS scores and low, inverse relationships between chest and arm soreness and PRS scores,
- a significant, moderate inverse relationship between CK and PRS
|Read more about the hormonal effects of different workout styles in this previous SuppVersity post|
"[...] important for those individuals that have neither the resources (time, monetary or otherwise) nor the expertise to draw blood and perform chemical assays to determine recovery status and or muscle damage. [...] This, in the bigger picture, may help appropriately design periodization plans designed aimed at functional overreaching and ensure proper overload. Moreover, and perhaps more importantly, the ability to indicate level of recovery following heavy resistance training expeditiously and accurately may be a critically important step in prevention of overtraining." (Sikorski. 2013)The scientists do yet also emphasize that "future work is needed addressing other variable influencing recovery and long-term studies investigating the usefulness of the PRS in training" before a more general recommendation can be issued.
That's it for today folks. As usual there are a couple of interesting facebook posts for you to check out and discuss
- Upping your vitamin D levels does nothing to reduce knee pain or cartilage loss in patients with symptomatic knee ostearthritis (read more)
- "The one-two punch", retinoic acid suppresses obesity by both promoting energy expenditure and by inhibiting adipogenesis (read more)
- More evidence of intrauterine dietary priming: Low protein in the womb + high caloric diet afterwards => insulin resistance (read more)
- Berg RD. Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999, 473:11–30.
- Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, Knauf C, Burcelin RG, Tuohy KM, Gibson GR, Delzenne NM. Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia. 2007 Nov;50(11):2374-83.
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- Mani V, Hollis JH, Gabler NK. Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2013;10(6).
- Ono T, Morishita S, Murakoshi M. Novel function of bovine lactoferin in lipid metabolism: Visceral fat reduction by enteric-coated lactoferrin. Pharma Nutrition. 2012 [accepted manuscript]
- Sikorski EM, Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Laurant CM, M-C Wilson S, Hesson D,
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Following High Volume, Muscle Damaging Resistance Exercise. J Strength Cond Res.
2013 Jan 2. [Epub ahead of print]
- Tallis J, James RS, Cox VM, Duncan MJ. The effect of a physiological concentration of caffeine on the endurance of maximally and submaximally stimulated mouse soleus muscle. J Physiol Sci. 2013 Jan 6.
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