|Hands off, if you want to stay lean!|
Zachary Clayton and his colleagues did after all find that their subjects showed similar unwanted metabolic alterations when they consumed two 100kcal snacks per day for 8 weeks (Clayton. 2014).
In that, it did not make a difference if the snack was "healthy" (dried plums) or unhealthy (a highly refined low-fat muffin). Both snacks had negative effects on the amount of high molecular weight adiponectin - in all fairness, it must be said, though, that the decrease in the muffin group was almost 2x higher than it was in the plum group.
|Figure 1: Contribution of snacking to total daily energy intake by year and age (left; Jahns. 1996); prevalence of overweight among US children and adolescents (right; CDC data)|
|Protein has a long(er) lasting postprandial thermogenic effect than carbs (LeBlanc. 1991)|
What it does mean, though, is that you are probably about to become leaner and more muscular if you add the same three protein shakes to a 3,000kcal baseline and throw out the Twinkies, Dingdongs and the last slice of pizza to "compensate" for the additional energy intake.
- This does not apply to I diabetes: It's not yet sure why, but the contemporary evidence suggests that, unlike type II, type I diabetes is often characterized by abnormally high levels of high molecular weight adiponectin (Galler. 2007; Leth. 2008). For someone with diabetes anti-bodies, the correlations mentioned to the left of this box are thus meaningless.or rather reduced levels of it are associated with increased risk of type II diabetes (Nakashima. 2006; Heidemann. 2008)
- correlates better with blood glucose management than total adiponectin (Trujillo. 2005) and can be used to predict insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (Hara. 2006)
- predicts the outcome in patients with coronary artery disease and is independently associated with the extent of coronary artery disease in men (Inoue. 2007; von Eynatten. 2008)
- activates AMPK and suppresses cytokine-induced NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells and will thus support the self-repair of your cardiovascular system (Hattori. 2008)
- is supposed to be particularly active as a "weight loss trigger" in the brain (Qi. 2004)
- rises in response to the administration to certain hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic drugs (Oki. 2007)
- Bray, George A., et al. "Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial." JAMA 307.1 (2012): 47-55.
- Fargnoli, Jessica L., et al. "Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with higher circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin and lower resistin concentrations in women from the Nurses' Health Study." The American journal of clinical nutrition 88.5 (2008): 1213-1224.
- Galler, Angela, et al. "Elevated serum levels of adiponectin in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and the impact of age, gender, body mass index and metabolic control: a longitudinal study." European Journal of Endocrinology 157.4 (2007): 481-489.
- Hara, Kazuo, et al. "Measurement of the high–molecular weight form of adiponectin in plasma is useful for the prediction of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome." Diabetes care 29.6 (2006): 1357-1362.
- Hattori, Yoshiyuki, et al. "High molecular weight adiponectin activates AMPK and suppresses cytokine-induced NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells." FEBS letters 582.12 (2008): 1719-1724.
- Heidemann, Christin, et al. "Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin and resistin in relation to the risk for type 2 diabetes in women." Annals of internal medicine 149.5 (2008): 307-316.
- Inoue, Teruo, et al. "High molecular weight adiponectin as a predictor of long-term clinical outcome in patients with coronary artery disease." The American journal of cardiology 100.4 (2007): 569-574.
- Larson, Nicole, and Mary Story. "A review of snacking patterns among children and adolescents: what are the implications of snacking for weight status?." Childhood Obesity 9.2 (2013): 104-115.
- LeBlanc, J., P. Diamond, and A. Nadeau. "Thermogenic and hormonal responses to palatable protein and carbohydrate rich food." Hormone and metabolic research 23.07 (1991): 336-340.
- Leth, Henrik, et al. "Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93.8 (2008): 3186-3191.
- Marmonier, C., D. Chapelot, and J. Louis-Sylvestre. "Effects of macronutrient content and energy density of snacks consumed in a satiety state on the onset of the next meal." Appetite 34.2 (2000): 161-168.
- Nakashima, Reiko, et al. "Decreased total and high molecular weight adiponectin are independent risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese-Americans." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91.10 (2006): 3873-3877.
- Oki, Kenji, et al. "Fenofibrate increases high molecular weight adiponectin in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia." Endocrine journal 54.3 (2007): 431-435.
- Qi, Yong, et al. "Adiponectin acts in the brain to decrease body weight." Nature medicine 10.5 (2004): 524-529.
- Trujillo, M. E., et al. "Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males." Diabetologia 48.6 (2005): 1084-1087.
- Tsutamoto, Takayoshi, et al. "Total and high molecular weight adiponectin, haemodynamics, and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure." European heart journal 28.14 (2007): 1723-1730.
- von Eynatten, Maximilian, et al. "High-molecular weight adiponectin is independently associated with the extent of coronary artery disease in men." Atherosclerosis 199.1 (2008): 123-128.
- Westenhoefer, J., et al. "Behavioural correlates of successful weight reduction over 3 y. Results from the Lean Habits Study." International journal of obesity 28.2 (2004): 334-335.