|It always hits the (already) big ones.|
Subsequently, even the latter, i.e. the breakfast eaters were requested to eat breakfast for an entire week. The BREAKFAST week was followed by a one week wash-out and an entire week during which the subjects had to omit breakfast.
Over the course of the whole study period, all subjects hat do keep detailed 7-day food diaries, reporting what was consumed and the timing of consumption were completed for each breakfast condition.
|Figure 1: Lean (left) and overweight (right) subjects react very different to breakfast skipping (Reeves. 2014)|
Timing and body weight, both make a difference!
In general, overweight participants consumed greater amounts of energy than normal weight participants (surprise ;-) in the early evening - the effect was even more pronounced for those of them who were regular breakfast omitters and thus used to feasting in the afternoon / evening.
Overall, this sounds as if having breakfast regularly was a very good idea, but unlike some people want to make you believe, the total energy intake does count. The same is yet also true for the amount of sugar, which skyrocketed in the overweight subjects in the no breakfast week. Running around on empty and being unable to tap into their affluent energy depots on the hips and around the waist, the insulin resistant (don't tell me about "healthy obesity!") overweight part of the study participants gravitated towards readily available energy intake.
- Reeves, Sue, et al. "Experimental manipulation of breakfast in normal and overweight/obese participants is associated with changes to nutrient and energy intake consumption patterns." Physiology & Behavior | Available online 24 May 2014.