|The indoctrination machine of the supplement industry is pretty efficient. At least that's what I gather from the "bro-talk" in my own gym - I guess you know what I mean, right?|
You never gave in to the temptation? Right you were! A recent study from Japan confirms once more: It's complete proteins trigger complete growth effects, their individual amino acids, which were used in the control arm of a recent (unfortunately) rodent study from the Meiji Company Limited, the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences and the Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology in Japan, on the other hand, have comparably weak effects on the post-exercise gene expression profile.
But, one thing after the other, as you have already gathered from the information in the introduction, the scientists were building on their own results as well as the findings of Rowlands et al. have published in Physiological Genomics in 2011 (Rowlands. 2012). In said study, the researchers had been able to show...
"[...]that post-exercise ingestion of whey protein differentially alters the portion of the transcriptome that is involved in tissue structure and remodelling, including production of the extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton and contractile proteins." (Kanda. 2014)In contrast to their previous study, which was the basis of the discussion in an article I wrote last year (" Don't Judge a Protein by Its Amino Acid Content: 17% Higher Protein Synthesis With Whey vs. Free Form Amino Acids" | read previous article) and where their focus was on mTOR and the fractional protein synthesis (see Figure 1), the study at hand focused focused less on the net effect and more on the underlying (genomic) which explains the fact that free form amino acids suck and whey hydrolysate rules.
|Figure 1: Fractional protein synthesis (left), AA, glucose & insulin conc. in the blood and expression of mTOR, 4E-BP1 and S6K1 in sk. muscle in response to CHO, whey protein hydrosylate or identical free form amino acids (AA; Kanda. 2013)|
|Figure 2: Fractional protein synthesis and insulin levels after the ingestion of the free form Amino Acid (identical profile as whey hydro) + CHO or Whey Hydolysate + CHO formulas after the workouts (Kanda. 2014)|
- lmmune response
- Regulation of RNA metabolic process
- Positive regulation of RNA metabolic process
- Positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
- Positive regulation of transcription from RNA
- polymerase II promoter
- Regulation of transcr. from RNA polymerase II promo
- Regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
- Positive regulation of gene expression
- Regulation of nervous system development
- Regulation of neuron differentiation
- Negative regulation of neuron differentiation
- Response to organic substance
- Response to mechanical stimulus
- Muscle tissue development
- Striated muscle tissue development
- Negative regulation of cytokine production
- Response to wounding
- Kanda, Atsushi, et al. "Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content." British Journal of Nutrition 110.06 (2013): 981-987.
- Kanda, Atsushi, et al. "Post-exercise impact of ingested whey protein hydrolysate on gene expression profiles in rat skeletal muscle: activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α." British Journal of Nutrition (2014): 1-12.
- Rowlands, David S., et al. "Transcriptome and translational signaling following endurance exercise in trained skeletal muscle: impact of dietary protein." Physiological genomics 43.17 (2011): 1004-1020.