|The benefits of bicarbonate show on the finish line, not the starting block.|
You don't believe a word? Well, scientists from the Sheffield Hallam University (Griffen. 2014) and the Human Performance Laboratory at the University San Luis Obispo (Barber. 2013).
Griffen et al. (2014) investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate co-ingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.
Their subjects, nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ± 12.8 kg) performed six 10-s repeated Wingate tests in a double-blind, placebo controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study. Before the exercise tests, the oarticipants supplemented with either
- creatine and sodium bicarbonate contained 20 g/d of creatine monohydrate (Myprotein Inc., Northwich, UK), 0.3 g/kg of sodium bicarbonate (Buy Whole Foods Online, Canterbury, UK) and 0.5 g/kg of maltodextrin (Myprotein Inc., Northwich, UK).
- creatine alone, i.e. of 20 g/d of creatine monohydrate and 0.5 g/kg of maltodextrin,
- sodium bicarbonate alone, i.e. 0.3 g/kg of sodium bicarbonate and 0.5 g/kg of maltodextrin, or
- the placebo which contained only 0.5 g/kg maltodextrin.
The split-dose strategy, on the other hand, was employed to reduce side effects from sodium bicarbonate supplementation (Burke & Pyne, 2007) - something you've read here at the SuppVersity before (Bicarbonate Serial Loading | learn more).
"Supplements were split into four equal dose to be consumed at 9 am, 12 pm, 5 pm and 9 pm. Participants were also instructed to ingest each supplement sachet with 330 ml of water diluted with 40 ml of orange cordial." (Griffen. 2014)The degree of compliance reported was 86 ± 7% for co-ingestion of creatine and sodium bicarbonate, 89 ± 7% for creatine alone, 90 ± 7% for sodium bicarbonate alone and 93 ± 4% for the placebo. Participants were instructed to maintain their habitual diet and abstain from strenuous exercise, caffeine and alcohol 24 h prior to each trial.
learn more.The trials that were performed on a magnetically braked ergometer, began with a warm up at 50 RPM against a resistance of 0.5 kg for 5 min, with one 5 s sprint against a resistance of 7.5% of the participant’s body-mass after 2.5 min. Participants then completed six 10-s sprints using a standardised resistance equating to 7.5% body mass. One min of active recovery at 50 RPM was provided between each test. Participants were asked to cycle at a cadence of 50 RPM until the start signal to ensure the inertia of the system was not overcome by standardising the angular momentum of the flywheel (Winter & Fowler, 2009).
|Figure 1: Changes in peak, mean and rel. power, total work and fatique index (W/s) relative to baseline (Griffen. 2014)|
A note on the dangers of "salt": Firstly, baking soda is "only" ~28% sodium, which means that for every 4 grams you ingest you get roughly 1 g of sodium. Secondly, it is arguable how much of the sodium is effectively taken up and will be floating around in your blood. As T. Lakhanisky points out in his dossier for the Belgian government: "The uptake of sodium, via exposure to sodium carbonate, is much less than the uptake of sodium via food. Therefore, sodium carbonate is not expected to be systemically available in the body." (SIDS. 2002) And thirdly, there is more and more evidence that suggests that the chloride rather than the sodium content of common table salt (NaCl = Natrium Chloride) is the root cause of "sodium induced hypertension" in "sodium sensitive" individuals / animal models.That's in contrast to another recently published study by from the the Human Performance Laboratory at the University San Luis Obispo (Barber. 2013).
Only recently, a study for the Schmidlin et al. showed that chloride loading induced hypertension in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat despite profound sodium depletion (Schmidlin. 2002). So, if you asked me, rather than pointing at salt as the #2 on the list of greatest evils (obviously cholesterol is still #1, here) the medical orthodoxy would be better advised to address the imbalances between sodium and potassium, which are so characteristic of the western diet, instead of painting yet another black and white picture where sodium is the bad guy and potassium the dangerous mineral that cannot be sold OTC in dosages >80mg.... but hey, this would be the topic for a whole new blogpost and as gross as it may sound, the chance that you get diarrhea from the baking soda is probably 1000x higher than the remote possibility of increases in blood pressure. A 1990 study by Luft et al. even found that the blood pressure of 10 mildly hypertensive and normal subjects decreased by 5mmHg after 7 days in the course of which they drank 3 liters of sodium bicarbonate containing water per day (Luft. 1990)
|Figure 2: Unlike Griffen, Barber et al. (2013) measured significant increases in rel. peak power.|
"Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint." (Barber. 2013)In contrast to Griffen, et al. (2014), the researchers from St. Lois found a 3% greater increase in relative peak power with Cr + Sb (7%) compared to creatine alone.
What may be of even greater practical relevance is the absence of performance decreases during sprint tests 4–6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both the placebo and creatine trial, respectively their absence in the Cr + Sb trials, where the sprint performance decreased only on spring #6!
This effect is probably directly related to the blood bicarbonate pre- and post-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations which were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with the Pl and Cr.
- Barber, James J., et al. "Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 27.1 (2013): 252-258.
- Griffen, C., et al. "Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Co-Ingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men." International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism (2014).
- Luft, Friedrich C., et al. "Sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride: effects on blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis in normal and hypertensive man." Journal of hypertension 8.7 (1990): 663-670.
- Schmidlin, Olga, et al. "Selective chloride loading is pressor in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat despite hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis." Journal of hypertension 28.1 (2010): 87.
- SIDS, OECD. "Sodium Bicarbonate." (2002).