|Alright, THIS may not be the best way to "break the fast" aka have breakfast.|
Thanks to Elizabeth A. Thomas, Janine Higgins, Daniel H. Bessesen, Bryan McNair, and Marc-Andre Cornier from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and the Denver Health Medical Center we do now also know why the hitherto published studies yielded highly ambiguous results.
The answer is simple and should actually not surprise you if you've read all the article from the SuppVersity Circadian Rhythm Series (read them): The negative metabolic effects of breakfast skipping are a mere results of breaking your bodies (ingrained) rules.
|Figure 1: Overview of study day. Study procedures are shown by time (min). IC, indirect calorimetry; VAS, visual analog scales for appetite ratings; Labs, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides, GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin (Thomas. 2015).|
|Figure 2: Hunger, satiety, plasma glucose and insulin in the Eaters and Skippers in the two conditions (Thomas. 2015).|
More specifically, both, the insulin (P < 0.020) and FFA (P < 0.023) AUC, were higher on the NB day for Eaters but similar on both days for Skippers. In addition, Thomas et al. observed that eaters had higher pre lunch hunger AUC on the NB day (P < 0.015) as well as lower pre lunch satiety AUC under both conditions (P < 0.019). Since the Skippers, i.e. those participants who were used to skip breakfast did not experience the opposite effect, i.e. a decreased hunger AUC on the breakfast day, the results of the study clearly indicate that the appetite increasing / decreasing effects of skipping / having breakfast depends primarily on what your circadian rhythm dictates... and the latter is determined solely by your breakfast habbits.
- Thomas, E. A., Higgins, J., Bessesen, D. H., McNair, B. and Cornier, M.-A. (2015), Usual breakfast eating habits affect response to breakfast skipping in overweight women. Obesity. doi: 10.1002/oby.21049