Friday, May 29, 2015

Science-Based Stunts to Make You Lose Weight Rapidly or Slowly : Enteral Nutrition Strips 6cm off Your Waist in One Week, Guar Gum (Fiber) May Help You Lose Weight in Many

Yes, drastic measures will make the weight melt faster, but even if you tube-feed yourself lean, you will not stay this way without lifestyle changes like an increase in fiber intake.
There are a billion different ways to lose weight, but if you aligned all these ways along in a diagram with two axes: One that describes the degree of invasion in your regular dietary habits and the other indicating the time that's necessary to see results, the two "tricks" discussed in today's SuppVersity post would be placed somewhere in the edges of the 2nd and third quadrant.

You don't get that? Well, I guess that's a science guy's way of saying we are dealing with totally different ways of losing weight, of which one, i.e. the use of guar gum to increase the satiety effects of your meals, suitable for long-term weight loss, while the other, i.e. the use of a very low-calorie
You can learn more about the fiber at the SuppVersity

Polydextrose & Res. Malto 4You

Most people don't get enough fiber

Foods, Not Ma- cros for the Gut

Fiber and Mortality Risk

Appetite Short News /Fiber

Xanthan GI Reducer?
protein-based that is enterally fed to obese individuals, being geared towards maximal fat loss in a minimal amount of time - no matter how severe this may mess with your regular eating habits.
In spite of the fact that I hope that few of you are in a situation similar to the one the 364 severely overweight patients (59% women; all with a mean BMI of whopping 46.6 ± 7.2 kg/m²) who participated in a recent study from Italy, I believe that you may be interested to hear how these guys and gals lost 5.4cm of their waists and improved their insulin levels by 11 pts and their glucose levels by 16 pts within only 14 days.
Figure 1: Changes in relevant markers of body comp. glucose and lipid metabolism (Castalado. 2015).
Yeah, the results are impressive, but I doubt that many people like to be fed through a nasogastric tube 24/7, right? Well, that's unfortunately what may be required to ensure that the homemade very
low-calorie (~6 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day) protein-based formula (2000 mL per day) the scientists used can actually work its full weight loss magic.
Table 1: Ingredients (Castalado. 2015).
I am deliberately writing that enteral feeding may be required! Without scientific evidence you wouldn't see the exact same results if you feed your subjects the whey-based formula that was infused with arginine, ornithine, taurine, cysteine, tryptophan, proline and citrulline, as well as omega-3s, carnitine, policosanol and prebiotics (see Table 1) orally, there's still hope that the nasogastric tube is not necessary, even if the constant nutrient influx the researchers achieved by administered the "drink" continuously (24 hours a day) by means of a small, light, and rechargeable peristaltic feeding pump may figure.
Eventually, it should be obvious, though, that a weight-loss strategy like that is not appropriate for someone with only a few extra-kilograms. For people like that "trick" #2 may be of significantly greater interests.

Fiber increases satiety, but more importantly, it also reduces food intake

In the end, it's not actually new that fiber can make you feel more satiated. What is yet by no means clear, however, is (a) whether this is a "one-time thing", i.e. whether the effect will still be there, when you got accustomed to high fiber foods, and (b) whether an acute feeling of increased satiety after a "fiber-upped" food (= foods that are artificially supplemented with fiber) will also make you eat less on subsequent meals.
Soluble or insoluble, what's "better"? Soluble fiber is the fiber that will be fermented by the bacteria in your gut, insoluble fiber will pass "right through" (that's an over-generalization obviously). These bacteria turn the fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) which have two important functions (1) they serve as an energy source and (2) they interact with certain receptors in your gut and trigger the production of "satiety hormones" like the "fat-burning-insulin-sensitizing hormone" GLP-1. Effect (1) has mislead scientists to believe that the energy from the SCFAs may hamper the beneficial effects of fiber (and in certain cases does actually happen | Isken. 2010), but the overwhelming evidence shows that both have beneficial effects on your metabolic, intestinal and overall health (Weickert. 2008; Howarth. 2001; Papathanasopoulos. 2012).
Both has recently been studied by scientists from Taiyo Kagaku R&D. In three separate studies, Rao et al. determined the whether small doses of partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre would effect post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake with acute and long term administration.
"The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed 2g of PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n = 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n = 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch" (Rao. 2015)
The results of the studies confirmed that (1) the acute satiety effect of soluble fiber (in this case guar gum) persists (at least for two weeks) and that (2) slightly larger amounts of soluble fiber will have beneficial effects on energy intake.
Figure 2: Two important findings (1) the appetite suppressive effects actually increase from day 1 to day 7 and (2) the energy intake is reduced even if you take into accout that soluble fiber has calories, too (Rao. 2015).
What's specifically interesting about the last result is that most of the reduction in energy intake occurred in the form of snacks; and in view of the fact that snacking is one of the motors of the obesity epidemic, this is one of the few results from a medium-term study that may actually translate into long-term results.
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SuppVersity Suggested Previous Article: "Polydextrose and Resistant Maltodextrin as Dieting Aids W/ GLP-1 Boosting & Appetite Reducing Effects: 7% Reduced Energy Intake per 10g/day of Polydextrose in Clinical Trials" | read the full article
Bottom line: In spite of the fact that the side-effects of the "hard-core" diet regimen (tube feeding) were astonishingly mild (initial side effects like headaches and even the hunger disappeared or were sign. reduced in week two), I cannot really recommend a nasogastric tube to anyone but the extremely obese.

What I do recommend, though, is a high-fiber diet. In that I am not entirely sure, however, if supplementing your diet with extra fiber (for example as guar gum) is the ideal solution for those of you who want to lose weight. Why? Well, if you try to achieve your daily fiber goals (like 25g+ as it is suggested by AHA reasearchers, for example | Howarth. 2001) solely via natural sources, this will make you gravitate towards healthier food items and you all know: It's the food you eat, not its macros that determines whether it'll make you fat or help you to lean out | Comment on Facebook!
References:
  • Castaldo, Giuseppe, et al. "A 2-Week Course of Enteral Treatment with a Very Low-Calorie Protein-Based Formula for the Management of Severe Obesity." International Journal of Endocrinology 2015 (2015).
  • Isken, Frank, et al. "Effects of long-term soluble vs. insoluble dietary fiber intake on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice." The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 21.4 (2010): 278-284.
  • Howarth, Nancy C., Edward Saltzman, and Susan B. Roberts. "Dietary fiber and weight regulation." Nutrition reviews 59.5 (2001): 129-139.
  • Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios, and Michael Camilleri. "Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions." Gastroenterology 138.1 (2010): 65-72.
  • Rao, Theertham Pradyumna, et al. "Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum." British Journal of Nutrition 113.09 (2015): 1489-1498.
  • Weickert, Martin O., and Andreas FH Pfeiffer. "Metabolic effects of dietary fiber consumption and prevention of diabetes." The Journal of nutrition 138.3 (2008): 439-442.