|If you oxidize the CHOs from this meal, instead of storing it as glycogen, that's bad news for ability to maintain your body weight over the next 6-months & beyond|
A recent study from the Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) at the "glorious" National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggests that it may relate to the way they respond to fasting and overfeeding on high carb, low protein and eucaloric diets.
It is by no means news that there is a considerable inter-individual variation in the energy cost of weight gain. Some people gain weight on a caloric surplus of only 10kcal/day, while others stash away hundreds of extra kcals without gaining a single pound of body fat (these figures have only illustrative values and are not meant to be "exact").
"In a prior cross-sectional study, the increase in energy expenditure (EE) with overfeeding and the decrease with fasting were found to be correlated in a small group of 14 male subjects (Weyer. 2011). Our group has previously shown that the EE response to overfeeding varies considerably among individuals but is consistent and reproducible within individuals. This individual contribution explains more of the observed variability in the EE changes with overfeeding than changes to the macronutrient content of the diet (Thearle. 2013). These studies seem to indicate that phenotypic differences may exist in the EE responses to fasting or overfeeding that may affect susceptibility to weight gain. As overeating or caloric restriction are necessary to alter weight, perturbations in energy balance may be needed to uncover responses that signify an energy conserving physiology versus a physiology that is better able to resist weight gain" (Schlögl. 2015).In their latest study, Schlögl and colleagues extend their previous findings by addressing the question of whether this inter-individual variation in EE changes relates to future weight change. Or, to put it simply: They tried to answer the question
"Will your acute reaction to 24h overfeeding on different diets predict if you can maintain your weight over the next 6 months, or not?"
To answer the question, the 24-h EE during energy balance during fasting and four different overfeeding diets with 200% energy requirements was measured in a metabolic chamber in 37 subjects with normal glucose regulation while they resided in the clinical research unit of the NIH. Each of the diets was administered for exactly 24h with 3-day washouts in-between (breakfast at 07:00, entry into the calorimeter one hour later; further meals were provided inside the calorimeter at 11:00, 16:00, and 19:00 through a two-door airlock):
- a eucaloric reference diet which was 80% of the weight maintaining diet to account for the reduced energy expenditure due to being confined to the metabolic chamber that contained 50% carbohydrates, 30% fats, and 20% proteins
- a fasting trial (FST) in which the subjects sat in the metabolic chamber fasted
- a low-protein diet (LPF) with 51% carbohydrate, 46% fat, 3% protein
- a standard overfeeding diet (SOF) with 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 20% protein
- a high-fat, normal-protein overfeeding diet (FNP) with 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein
- a high-carbohydrate, normal-protein overfeeding diet (CNP) with 75% carbohydrate, 5% fat and 20% protein