|With adequ. protein and nutrients "crash"- beats "low and steady" -dieting. In the obese that's almost certain, in athletes more experimental evidence are needed.|
A 2014 study by Purcell, Sumithran, and Prendergast that was published in the venerable scientific journal The Lancet for example, showed that rapid weight loss on a very low calorie diet leads to better long-term outcomes than gradual weight loss on a much less restricted diet.
That's a results of which I feel that it is important enough to re-address ii in its own SuppVersity article. After all, the "slow and steady" advise is still ubiquitous, both in the mainstream and in the health and fitness community. In said study, Purcell et al.
"aimed to investigate whether the rate of weight loss affects the rate of regain, and whether weight lossinduced changes in circulating appetite-mediating hormones and subjective appetite are affected by the rate of weight loss" (Purcell. 2012).To this end, the researchers from the University of Melbourne conducted a two-phase, non-masked, randomized controlled trial. The study participants were recruited through radio and newspaper advertisements and word of mouth in Melbourne, Australia.
- Inclusion criteria were healthy men and women aged between 18–70 years who were weight stable for 3 months and had a BMI between 30.0–45.0kg/m².
- Exclusion criteria included use of a very low energy diet or weight loss drugs in the previous 3 months, contraceptive use, pregnancy or lactation, smoking, current use of drugs known to affect body weight, previous weight loss surgery, and the presence of clinically significant disease (including diabetes).
|Figure 1: Overview of the study design (Purcell. 2014)|Better ZERO than Some Food? Study Suggest Just That! Learn more.
- Gradual weight loss: Participants in the gradual group replaced 1 to 2 meals daily with the same supplements and followed a diet program based on recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for the other meals over a period of 36 weeks (400–500 kcal deficit per day).
|High(er) protein intake (1.2-1.4g/kg) are a way to make very low calorie diets, here fasting vs. protein modified fasting, more effective (Iselin. 1982).|
|Figure 3: Relative changes in measures body composition (left) and activity from pre- to follow up (Purcell. 2015).|
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