What makes the study so relevant? Well, it was a randomized human trial in twenty healthy male collegiate sprint football (mean age 20y; height ~175cm, weight ~80kg; 1RM back squat of ~125kg; 80% RM back squat of ~100kg), not any old rodent study.
There's one thing that reduces the relevance of the data, though. Instead of objective markers of recovery, such as post-recovery strength tests or at least CK and LDH levels, the scientists gave their subjects a questionnaires, prior to completing a lower extremity DOMS protocol, to determine the level of discomfort and functional limitations at baseline.
Upon a second visit to the lab, the subjects were then randomly assigned to consume 240 mL of raw milk (RMS sweetened with honey to make up for the sugar in the chocolate milk) or a chocolate milk "placebo" (CMS) before completing the same set of exercise and filling the same set of questionnaires immediately post, 24-, 48- and 72-h post DOMS protocol. Additionally, the scientists contacted the subjects 10 days after the test to learn if any negative effects were experienced as a result of ingesting either solution.
Milk and diabetes? Scientists get to the bottom of anti-diabetic effects of milk: It's the mix that makes all the difference: While individual components may not be present in sufficient concentration to produce a physiological effect such an effect may be obtained by several components acting in concert. PPAR-α, -β and -γ agonists as well milk fat bioactive compounds that induce uncoupling protein-1 expression in brown adipose tissue may explain the suppression of diet-induced obesity and improvement in insulin sensitivity, review concludes (Parodi. 2016).The scientists' statistical analysis of the difference, revealed that the relevance of the differences at baseline and 24h post is unclear, while the advantage of the raw milk at 48h and 72h was likely relevant. The 10-day follow-up did, as you probably already expected, not reveal any negative side effects. Overall, the results were thus in line with previous studies suggesting that the consumption of a milk-based solution with an elevated carbohydrate level reduces the DOMS (Cockburn. 2012).
As the scientists point out, though, it "has not been reported prior to this study is the difference between a raw milk solution and a commercially available milk solution with elevated carbohydrate levels" (Hatchett. 2016). So, does raw milk actually work the magic that its advocates say is lost due to the pasteurization process which is supposed to denature the macronutrients and many of the micronutrients present in the milk? Maybe...
- Cockburn, Emma, et al. "Effect of volume of milk consumed on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage." European journal of applied physiology 112.9 (2012): 3187-3194.
- Hatchett, Andrew, et al. "A Comparison between Chocolate Milk and a Raw Milk Honey Solution’s Influence on Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness." Sports 4.1 (2016): 18.
- Parodi PW. "Cooperative action of bioactive components in milk fat with PPARs may explain its anti-diabetogenic properties." Med Hypotheses 89 (2016):1-7.
- Radak, Zsolt, et al. "Nitric oxide: Is it the cause of muscle soreness?." Nitric Oxide 26.2 (2012): 89-94.