But enough of this let's get to some recent science news. Let's see... oh yeah, why don't we just start out with something 15% of the German kids (this is the number of already obese kids) are probably going to need sooner or later: diabetes medication.
Metformin not unique, green tea just as effective?!(Sundaram. 2013) -- I know this sounds almost like a marketing scam from some snake oil... ah, green tea vendor, but according to a soon-to-be-published paper in Phytomedicine does have almost identical effects on the glucose metabolism of diabetic (streptozotocin + high at diet = std. model of type II diabetes), as metformin does.
|Figure 1: Glucose and insulin levels in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rodents receiving different doses of green tea (75, 150, 300mg/kg) or metformin (500mg/kg; Sundaram. 2013)|
|Did you know that the macronutrient composition (esp. the protein content) can have major impacts on your neurotransmitters and mood? No, then revisit this older SuppVersity article and learn more.|
After all those years, 1-Andro still works.(Granados. 2013) -- It is certainly debatable in how far this qualifies as "news", after all, 1-androsterone is the "mother of all prohormones", but I still guess that one or another of the average muscle heads out there will still be intrigued to hear that researchers from the Human Performance Research Laboratory of the Department of Sports and Exercise Sciences at the West Texas A&M did actually dare to test the effects of 330mg/day 1-AD, which were administered for 4 week with 16 session of a structured RT program, on the physique and health of 16 males (23±1yrs; 13.1±1.5%BF; 5.3±1.0yrs RT experience; the 1-AD used in the study was probably that of a larger US producer that's still available online and has a slightly different nomenclature, i.e. 3-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-17-one).
|Figure 2: Relative changes in muscle mass (total change above the bars) and kidney, "liver" and lipoprotein metabolism after four weeks on a 1-AD clone (Granados. 2013)|
EPA triggers protein synthesis and inhibits breakdown... in the petri dish
|CLA and fish oil, are they "anabolic" in human trials (learn more)?|
If you take a look at the data in figure 3, which holds all the statistically significant effects the scientist observed, the most important advantage of EPA vs. DHA in murine C2C12 myotubes after L-leucine stimulation unquestionably is the EPA-specific decrease in protein breakdown.
|Figure 3: Protein breakdown, marker of protein synthesis and apoptosis in EPA or DHA treated C2C12 myotubes in the petri dish (Kamolrat. 2013)|
Phthalates in your food chain - addendum to last week's short newsOnce again, I am not trying to make you panic about the individual serving of whatever is on the following list. The current state of research clearly suggests that the individual contribution of endocrine disrupting plastics from each of these items is way below what can harm an adult (and sexually mature) individual. When I went through the latest data Arnold Schecter et al. present in their latest paper in Environmental Health Perspectives, there were - for my liking - still too many patterns emerging to simply ignore this paper (I cannot simply copy & paste all the data, but the you can download the supplemental data here):
- The "good apple" juice of which Dennison et al. report that daily intakes equal or greater than 12 fl oz/day are associated with short stature and with obesity in two and five-year old children in New York (Dennison. 2013), is topped in terms of its phthalate content only by diet lemon tea - another of those "healthy" beverage.
- The "healthy" vegetable oils are the absolute #1 dietary source of BBzP, of which a group of researchers from the Columbia University has only recently been able to show that children who were exposed to BBzP prenatally had a >50% higher risk of developing eczema within the first 2 years of their lives (Just. 2013).
|Figure 5: Dietary exposure (in µg/kg body weight; calculated on average intake of the various food items) from beverages, milk, other dairy, fish, fruits/vegetables, grain, beef, pork, poultry, vegetable oils and condiments (Schecter. 2013)|
- Several studies have reported an increased risk of allergic disease among children with higher childhood phthalate exposure, as well as increased airway inflammation.
- Some human studies suggest that in-utero phthalate exposure could lead to abnormal genital and behavioral development.
- Based on our current understanding, diet and dust are the predominant sources of DEHP and BBzP, while cosmetics are the major source of DEP.
I guess you know what's next!? Correct: "That's it for today! Check out the facebook news, such as
Wolverine doesn't care about the phthalates in milk, but what about homogenization? (read more) could be the only face of the "Got Milk" campaign who does not have to care about potential negative health effects of homogenized milk.
- Dairy & blood pressure - revisited & acquitted -- "[....]the preponderance of evidence indicates dairy foods are beneficially associated with blood pressure" (read more)
- Supplement users are a special kind of people -- Specifically health conscious, for example, and this will necessarily distort all epidemiological guesswork like "taking supplement X is associated with Y" (read more)
- Retinoic acid & testosterone: While vitamin A does not figure in the LH induced increase in testosterone production it's presence in the testes appears to be necessary to keep the basal testosterone production up (read more)
- Braun JM, Sathyanarayana S, Hauser R. Phthalate exposure and children's health. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013 Feb 16.
- Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, Baker SL. Excess fruit juice consumption by preschool-aged children is associated with short stature and obesity. Pediatrics. 1997 Jan;99(1):15-22.
- Granados J, Gillum T, Hodges C, Kuennen M. 3-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-17-one Enhances Muscular Gains but Impairs the Cardio-metabolic Health of Resistance Trained Males. International Journal of Exercise Science. TACM 2013.
- Just AC, Whyatt RM, Perzanowski MS, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Goldstein IF, Chen Q, Rundle AG, Miller RL. Prenatal exposure to butylbenzyl phthalate and early eczema in an urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1475-80. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104544. Epub 2012 Jun 13.
- Kamolrat T, Gray SR. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Feb 21.
- Mammucari C, Milan G, Romanello V, Masiero E, Rudolf R, Del Piccolo P, Burden SJ, Di Lisi R, Sandri C, Zhao J, Goldberg AL, Schiaffino S, Sandri M. FoxO3 controls autophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo. Cell Metab. 2007 Dec;6(6):458-71.
- McArthur SL. Infertility Fact Sheet. ABC Health & Well-Being. 2007 <http://www.abc.net.au/health/library/stories/2007/05/30/1919840.htm> retrieved March, 09, 2013.
- Schecter A, Lorber M, Guo Y, Wu Q, Yun SH, Kannan K, Hommel M, Imran N, Hynan LS, Cheng D, Colacino JA, Birnbaum LS. Phthalate Concentrations and Dietary Exposure from Food Purchased in New York State. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar 6.
- Senf SM, Dodd SL, McClung JM, Judge AR. Hsp70 overexpression inhibits NF-kappaB and Foxo3a transcriptional activities and prevents skeletal muscle atrophy. FASEB J. 2008 Nov;22(11):3836-45.
- Sundaram R, Naresh R, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P. Modulatory effect of green tea extract on hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine. 2013 Feb 27.
- Tranfo G, Caporossi L, Paci E, Aragona C, Romanzi D, De Carolis C, De Rosa M, Capanna S, Papaleo B, Pera A. Urinary phthalate monoesters concentration in couples with infertility problems. Toxicol Lett. 2012 Aug 13;213(1):15-20.
- White JP, Gao S, Puppa MJ, Sato S, Welle SL, Carson JA. Testosterone regulation of Akt/mTORC1/FoxO3a signaling in skeletal muscle. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013 Jan 30;365(2):174-86.