|More evidence that the often high taurine content in your energy drinks is more than a mere marketing gag.|
For their study, the researchers from the UK who were supported by colleagues from Australia recruited seven male team sports players (age 20.8 ± 0.9 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.11 m; body mass 86.3 ± 10.2 kg). Despite the small sample size, the scientists' a priori calculation indicated that a sample size of seven was sufficient to identify differences between groups with a statistical power of 0.80.
The subjects were randomized, in a single-blind design to perform three Wingate tests, each separated by 2-min, an hour after ingesting
- caffeine (C) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg body mass,
- taurine (T) at a dosage of 50 mg/kg BM,
- caffeine and taurine (C+T) at dosages of 5 mg/kg BM + 50 mg/kg, respectively, or
- placebo capsules (P) with an identical look and weight
|Figure 1: Taurine turns out to be the great fatigue modulator - if it's consumed w/out caffeine (Warnock 2017).|
|A 2004 study by Miyazaki et al found dose-dependent increases in endurance w/ human eq. doses of ~0.25g, ~1,25g and ~6.25g of taurine.|
- all of the supplements increased (small to moderate, likely to very likely) mean peak power (MPP), peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) compared to P, with greater MPP, PP and MP in T compared to C (small, possible)
- intra-sprint fatigue index (%FIIntra) was greater in the taurine (T) compared to placebo (P) and control (C) group - the practical relevance of this difference does yet appear to be smaller than that of the albeit likewise small decreased inter-sprint fatigue index (%FIInter) in the taurine (T) compared to the caffeine (C) group
- C and C+T increased HR, MAP and RPP compared to P and T at baseline (moderate to very large, likely to most likely); however, these only remained higher in C compared to all conditions in the final sprint.
What? Ok, let's simplify that a bit by taking a look at the plot of the fatigue and performance data in Figure 1 & 2 again. These graphs clearly reveal that (A) there was a sign. performance increase with all three supplements (Figure 2). Only the taurine (only) trial, however, (B) reduced the inter-sprint fatigue index (Figure 1) which appears to be the fatigue marker with greater relevance for most sports that require intermittent sprints.
|Figure 2: The performance increases were virtually identical in all three supplement groups (Warncock 2017).|
Taurine is probably at least as much a health as performance supplement
|Figure 3: Possible mechanisms responsible for beneficial effect of taurine in prevention and amelioration of metabolic syndrome (Murakami 2013).|
Taurine (supplementation) has also been found to have sign. health benefits (Militante 2004) in obesity-induced hyperlipidemia (Zhang 2004), to keep homocysteine and thus heart disease risk in check (Ahn 2009), to reverse endothelial dysfunction in high risk groups, like young type I diabetics (Moloney 2010) or to be useful in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (Gentile 2011).
Furthermore, many scientists believe that its supplementation or high dietary intakes could be usfeful in the prevention of diabetes and metabolic syndrome (Murakami 2013; Imae 2014).
- Ahn, Chang Soon. "Effect of taurine supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels of the middle-aged Korean women." Taurine 7. Springer New York, 2009. 415-422.
- Dawson, Jr, R., et al. "The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury." Amino acids 22.4 (2002): 309-324.
- Denadai, B. S., and M. L. D. R. Denadai. "Effects of caffeine on time to exhaustion in exercise performed below and above the anaerobic threshold." Brazilian journal of medical and biological research 31.4 (1998): 581-585.
- Ganio, Matthew S., et al. "Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 23.1 (2009): 315-324.
- Gentile, Christopher L., et al. "Experimental evidence for therapeutic potential of taurine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 301.6 (2011): R1710-R1722.
- Imae, Masato, Toshiki Asano, and Shigeru Murakami. "Potential role of taurine in the prevention of diabetes and metabolic syndrome." Amino Acids 46.1 (2014): 81-88.
- Moloney, Michael A., et al. "Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics." Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research 7.4 (2010): 300-310.
- Militante, Julius D., and John B. Lombardini. "Dietary taurine supplementation: hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic effects." Nutrition Research 24.10 (2004): 787-801.
- Miyazaki, T., et al. "Optimal and effective oral dose of taurine to prolong exercise performance in rat." Amino acids 27.3 (2004): 291-298.
- Murakami, S., and Y. Yamori. "Taurine and Longevity–Preventive Effect of Taurine on Metabolic Syndrome." Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for the Aging Population (2013): 159.
- Silva, Luciano A., et al. "Taurine supplementation decreases oxidative stress in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise." Cell biochemistry and function 29.1 (2011): 43-49.
- da Silva, Luciano A., et al. "Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 39.1 (2013): 101-104.
- Warnock, Rory, et al. "The Effects of Caffeine, Taurine or Caffeine-Taurine Co-Ingestion on Repeat-Sprint Cycling Performance and Physiological Responses." International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (2017): 1-24.
- Zhang, M., et al. "Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese non-diabetic subjects." Amino acids 26.3 (2004): 267-271.