Showing posts from November, 2010

25g Whey Protein or 10g of EAAs Maximize Post Workout Protein Synthesis Without Additional Carbs

While this probably won't end the debate on whether post-workout carbohydrate intake is a good or a bad thing, a recent review of the literature presented by Steward M. Phillips at the The Summer Meeting of the Nutrition Society ( Phillips. 2010 ) suggests that the addition of carbs to your post-workout shake is at least unnecessary, as long as you have a sufficient amount of leucine and EAAs in it: The increment in [muscle protein synthesis] MPS is maximally stimulated at a dose of protein of approximately 25 g or 10 g EAA . This rise is based solely on protein consumption and is not augmented by carbohydrate , at least when protein is adequate. Also, the type of protein is of utmost importance. Phillips recommends whey protein or (please note that it is not whey and EAAs ) a blend of EAAs at dosages of 25g and 10g, respectively. Figure 1: Whole blood leucine concentration (μ M ) following resistance exercise from subjects who consumed 500 ml fluid skim (low fat) m

Skipping Breakfast Makes You Fat, but NOT by Increasing Appetite

You will certainly have heard of the scientifically proven correlation between skipping breakfast and getting obese. At least for children a group led by Tanya VE Kral ( Kral. 2010 ) has now found "Omitting breakfast affected children’s appetite ratings but not their energy intake at subsequent meals ." Astonishing as this may sound, the results of their investigation are unequivocal: There was no significant main effect of breakfast condition on energy intake at lunch (P = 0.36) or throughout the remainder of the day (P = 0.85). There was a significant main effect of breakfast condition (P = 0.04) on total daily energy intake, which indicated that on the day when the subjects did not eat breakfast, they consumed 362 fewer calories over the course of the day than when they did eat breakfast. On the day when no breakfast was served, subjects indicated that they were significantly hungrier, less full, and could consume more food before lunch than on the day when they did ea

15-30% Increase in Protein Synthesis if Protein is Ingested After Exercise

What common sense already told us has now been proven again in a scientific study published by the American Society for Nutrition ( Pennings. 2010 ). Protein synthesis is greater if protein is consumed after exercise. And these results hold true for both, young and old. As a marker of protein synthethis, the scientists investigated the response of exogenous phenylalanine on a 20-g bolus of intrinsically l -[1- 13 C]phenylalanine-labeled protein which was administered either at rest or after exercise: [...] Muscle protein synthesis rates calculated from the oral tracer were 0.0620 ± 0.0065%/h and 0.0560 ± 0.0039%/h for the rest condition and 0.0719 ± 0.0057%/h and 0.0727 ± 0.0040%/h for the exercise condition in young and elderly men, respectively (age effect: P = 0.62; exercise effect: P < 0.05; interaction of age and exercise: P = 0.52). So overall, this is a non-negligible increase in the calculated protein synt

L-Citrulline Against Arterial Stiffness

You probably know it from the ingredient list of your pre-workout or amino acid product , l-citrulline . Being a possible precursor of l-arginine it is included in those formulas to increase nitric oxide levels and deliver those "skin bursting pumps" the advertisements brag about. In a recent study, scientists from Japan ( Ochiai. 2010 ) found that 1 week of l-citrulline supplementation at 5.6g/day effectively reduced arterial stiffness in 15 healthy males: Compared with the placebo group, baPWV [ index of arterial stiffness] was significantly reduced in the l-citrulline group (p<0.01). No significant differences in blood pressure (BP) were found between the two groups, and no correlation was observed between BP and baPWV. The serum nitrogen oxide (NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate) and NO metabolic products were significantly increased only in the l-citrulline group (p<0.05). Plasma citrulline, arginine and the ratio of arginine/asymmetric dimethylarg

Further Evidence Against Anti-Oxidant Supplementation: Vitamin E + Alpha Lipoic Acid Reduce Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis

Mass media and supplement companies will make you believe: " It is all about anti-oxidants " - Well, making money these days may in fact be all about anti-oxidants, but at least for athletes supplementing exogenous anti-oxidants may not be so wise as their producers would have us believe. Yet another recent study on the "beneficial" effects of anti-oxidants on reactive oxygen specimen (ROS) found that, at least for athletes blocking natural increases in ROS may also inhibit the intended adaptive responses: Consistent with augmentation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defenses, following training there were significant increases in PGC-1α mRNA and protein, COX IV and cytochrome C protein abundance, citrate synthase activity, Nfe2l2 and SOD2 protein (P<0.05). Antioxidant supplementation reduced PGC-1α mRNA, PGC-1α and COX IV protein, and citrate synthase enzyme activity (P<0.05) in both sedentary and exercise-trained rats. In

Want to Lose Fat? Don't Reward Yourself with Food!

At my gym, I see it over and over again: people staring at the calorie counter of the stairmaster, dreaming of the pot of icecream which is already waiting for them in the fridge. Don't be so stupid or you will end up like the "non-responders" in a recent study on exercise-induced weight-loss done by scientists from the University of Leeds ( Finlayson. 2010 ). The scientists observed 34 sedentary obese males and females who participated in a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week and classified them into responders (losing weight) and non-responders (maintaining or even increasing weight). By this means the scientists identified a certain pattern of increased appetite in high-fat sweet foods in the non-responders:  Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non

Creatine Prevents Statin Induced Myopathy

In the Observations section of the November issue of Annals of Internal Medicine Shewman & Craig ( Shewman. 2010 ) report beneficial effects of creatine supplementation in patients on statin drugs: Myopathy scores were significantly higher after the statin-only treatment phase than at baseline but did not differ from baseline after the other treatment phases. Creatine loading plus maintenance creatine therapy prevented myopathy symptoms in 8 of 10 patients receiving statins . After these 8 patients stopped maintenance creatine therapy and developed myopathy symptoms while receiving statins alone, reloading creatine decreased symptoms to baseline levels. Also, increasing the creatine dosage from maintenance to loading diminished myopathy symptoms to baseline levels in 1 patient who developed symptoms 6 days after a statin was added to maintenance creatine therapy. No significant differences in vital signs or laboratory test results were observed. So, in case you really think you

L-Arginine @5g/Day Reduces Lactate Levels in Male Athletes

While the NO-hype of the last years unquestionably is/was a scam, l-arginine, the amino acid that does not build muscle via increased NO-production, transpires to be ergogenic via very different mechanisms. Scientists from Iran ( Mozezzaneh. 2010 ) have now found that 5g of supplemental l-arginine significantly decreased the blood lactate levels of athletes (N=30) in the course of a 3 week supplementation period, but failed to induce consecutive or concurrent increases in VO2 max (a direct marker of exercise capacity): Blood lactate level was significantly decreased in the L-arginine group compared to the placebo one. There was no significant difference between the two groups in VO2max at anaerobic threshold. Only in the L-arginine group, VO2 max at anaerobic threshold was significantly increased. In addition, there was no significant difference in VO2 max at anaerobic threshold for the placebo group. If you remember the previous news on arginine , you may understand that I will r

DHT Safer Than Previously Thought: High Blood DHT does not Induce Prostate Cancer

Regular visitors of the SuppVersity will know that the stigmatization of DHT goes without reasonable and conclusive scientific research. In their editorial to the Annals of Internal Medicine Swerloff & Wang ( Swerloff. 2010 ) conclude from the results of more recent studies into the various effects of DHT on different tissues: In normal men, serum DHT levels are approximately 10% of the serum testosterone levels, whereas intraprostatic DHT levels are much higher than serum levels, with the intraprostatic DHT–testosterone ratio being 7 to 8 (12). Although the authors did not measure DHT levels in the prostate after DHT administration , Page and coworkers (13) recently reported that prostatic DHT levels did not increase when pharmacologic doses of DHT were administered (Page S. Personal communication.). These findings are consistent with those of Marks and colleagues (12), which demonstrated that administration of testosterone to mildly testosterone-deficient men increased serum t

Trigonella foenum graecum Slightly Increases Testosterone, but Fails to Illicit Gains in Lean Body Mass

A recently published study by Colin Willborn et al. ( Willborn. 2010 ) found that supplementation with 500mg of the purported aromatase inhibitor Trigonella foenum graecum did increase total testosterone +6.57% and bioavailable testosterone +12.26%  over an eight week period. Yet, the ingredient that is part of several commercially sold " muscle builders " did not increase lean body mass in thirty resistance-trained men. Figure 1: Body-fat loss from baseline testing (T1) through Week 8 (T3), mean Delta ± SD. What it did do, however, was to support a reduction in body fat (-2.0%), beyond the one seen in the placebo group (cf. figure 1). This is particularly interesting, because the hormonal data shows that the extract in fact failed to block aromatization effectively; this may be concluded from the fact, that apart from the rise in testosterone, there was a minor increase in estrogen, as well. In view of the lack of strength gains No significant changes were detected amo

1046 ng/dL Increase in Testosterone for 1.5kg Lean Body Mass in 16 Weeks

Before you read on: This was a study done on 112 men aged 65–90 years , so the results are only partly significant in view of the effects of testosterone supplementation on younger men. In a double-masked 2x3 factorial design the scientists administered testosterone gel (5g/day vs. 10g/day via Leydig cell clamp) and rhGH (0 vs. 3 vs. 5 µg/kg/d) to the subjects who had a mean baseline testosterone level of 493ng/dL. They summarize the results for the testosterone and the testosterone + rhGH groups as follows: Increases in total testosterone of 1046 ng/dL (95% confidence interval = 1040–1051) and 898 ng/dL (95% confidence interval = 892–904) were necessary to achieve median increases in lean body mass of 1.5 kg and appendicular skeletal muscle mass of 0.8 kg, respectively , which were required to significantly enhance one-repetition maximum strength (≥30%). Co-treatment with rhGH lowered the testosterone le

Combination of Selenium & Vitamin C Effectively Raises Testosterone Levels in Rats

Although this is an older study ( Lodhi. 2009 ), I found it particularly interesting that other than individual supplementation with vitamin C (group II) or selenium (group III), the combined administration (group IV) of 500 mg/L vitamin c in drinking water and 1.5 mg/kg selenium in chow significantly raised the testosterone to cortisol ratio of the rodents (cf. fig 1). Figure 1: Effect of vitamin C and/or selenium supplementation on testosterone to cortisol ratio Although it is uncertain if human beings will react similarly, both selenium and vitamin c are major players in the human antioxidant system, which has profound influence on stressors (cortisol) and endocrine function. And a higher testosterone to cortisol ratio (anabolic status) certainly won't hurt your efforts to get fitter, bigger, stronger or healthier - whatever your goals are ;-)

Sebacic Acid, an Ingredient of Castor Oil, Helps with Diabetes

In a recent study, European scientists ( Membrez. 2010 ) found that sebacic acid, a natural ingredient of castor oil improves blood sugar control in a mouse model of diabetes. The scientists fed their mice a diet containing 1.5% or 15% of sebatic acid (SA) over a period of 6 weeks and found: After 42 days of supplementation, fasting glycaemia and HbA1c were ∼70 and 25% lower in the SA 15% group compared with the other groups showing a beneficial effect of SA on hyperglycaemia. During OGTT, plasma glucose area under the curve was reduced after SA 15% compared with the other groups. This effect was associated with a tendency for an improved insulin response. In the liver, Pck1 and FBP mRNA were statistically decreased in the SA 15% compared with Ctrl suggesting a reduced hepatic glucose output induced by SA. While these are certainly encouraging results, it remains questionable whether or not it would be feasible for humans to achieve sufficiently high sebatic acid intake to

Taurine Effective Against High Fructose Induced Symptoms of the Metabolic Syndrome

Regular visitors of the SuppVersity know about the diverse positive effects of dietary taurine on health, body composition and exercise performance. Now, a recent study by Mesallamy et al. ( Mesallamy. 2010 ) found another good reason for the non fish-eaters among you (fish is particularly high in taurine) some supplemental taurine in your diet / supplement regimens. Figure 1: Effect of HFD and taurine supplementation on weight gain at days 0 and 35 of feeding. Each value is expressed in grams. ( Mesallamy. 2010. Fig. 1 ) The scientists put rats on either a control diet or high fructose diet (HFD), with both groups receiving additional 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p.) route for 35 days. While the decrease in body weight gain illustrated in figure 1 is relatively low, the overall effect of taurine on makers of the metabolic syndrome was significant: Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglycer

Olive Leave Extract Equally Effective at Lowering Blood Pressure as ACE Inhibitor Captopril

For those who read yesterday's news on the negative effect of caffeine on exercise induced blood pressure response, it might be of interest that no more than 500mg of Olive ( Olea europaea ) leaf extract may well counteract the negative effect of caffeine intake and help with triglyceride levels, as well. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled clinical study ( Susalit. 2010 ) an international team of scientists found that after a run-in period of 4 weeks continued subsequently by an 8-week treatment period supplementation with Olive ( Olea europaea L. ) leaf extract (EFLA®943) at 500 mg twice daily was equally effective in reducing blood pressure as the ACE inhibitor Captopril , which was given at the dosage regimen of 12.5 mg twice daily for the first two weeks and (if necessary) at 25 mg twice daily for the rest of the treatment period: After 8 weeks of treatment, both groups experienced a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well

Caffeine Blunts Exercise Induced Hypotensive Response and Increases Post Exercise Blood Pressure

I told you about the positive effect of caffeine supplementation on the post high intensity interval training fatty acid oxidation, only yesterday. Today, I have to tell you that all that could be a bad idea, if you are prone to hypertension, because, as scientists from Brazil found ( Cazé. 2010 ), the same caffeine that may make you shed some additional grams of fat, will block the hypothensive, i.e. blood pressure lowering effect of exercise and may drive an already high blood pressure into the danger zone: Seven hypertensive subjects (52.3 +/-3.3 years), being 5 women, accomplished two walk sessions with 40 minutes of duration, in two days of training, having previously ingested CA (4 mg/kg of body weight) or placebo (PL). BP and heart rate were verified previously to the ingestion, after 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes of the ingestion, at rest and with 10, 20 and 30 minutes after exercise. [...] BP mean increased from 124.9/80.9 mmHg before ingestion to 129.4/84.3 mmHg 60 minutes later

HIIT + Caffeine = Increase in Post Exercise Fat Metabolisation

HIIT and Caffeine have both been highly advocated for fat loss by professionals and personal trainers all over the world. Now, a recent study ( Gerber. 2010 ) by provides clinical evidence for the effectiveness of the combination of both. Gerber et al. had six participants complete two exercise trials consisting of 30 min of HIIT (20s cycling at 150% VO2max with 40s rest), followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test at 150% VO2max with prior ingestion of 5 mg/kg of either caffeine or placebo (Caltrate) in randomised order and found: During recovery from TTE, plasma glycerol was significantly increased with caffeine (p<0.05), with a similar trend for plasma FFA (p=0.1). VO2 was significantly elevated in the caffeine trial compared to placebo after both HIIT and TTE exercise bouts (p<0.05), and plasma uric acid was significantly higher after caffeine following TTE (p<0.05). So, after all, "bro-science" sometimes is not far away from "pro-science" and some

News on the Taurine vs. Beta Alanine Antagonism

Those of you who have been following the SuppVersity for some time, may remember my blogpost on the antagonism of Taurine and Beta Alanine on a cellular level and the possible detrimental effects of high dose Beta Alanine supplementation on Taurine content of muscle fibers. Now, scientists from Australia and the USA have investigated the effect of Taurine and Beta Alanine on mdx mice, which are a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These mice have naturally low levels of Taurine , which further decrease in the process of muscular degeneration and - as one would expect - did benefit from 4 weeks of  3% Taurine supplementation via drinking water. Supplementation with 3% Beta Alanine , on the other hand did not worsen the symptoms, as one might have expected, but "b-alanine supplementation reduced fatigue (p < 0.05) in both control and mdx mice ". Furthermore... Taurine supplementation had no effect on the recovery of the control group, [while] b-alanine supplemen

Glycogen-Depletion Has no Effect on Selected Marker of Skeletal Muscle Adaptation

In a recently published study, Camera et al. ( Camera. 2010 ) investigated the effect of isolated glycogen depletion on the rpS6 phosphorylation, a process which is closely related to the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling pathway that is generally believed to be part of the positive adaptation processes of resistance exercise. By having their subjects perform a unilateral cycling exercise the evening before the test session, the scientists established a "divergent muscle glycogen content that was  higher in the control leg (Norm) than in the Low leg at rest (383 ± 43 vs. 184 ± 14 mmol/kg dry wt; p < 0.05)". Thus, with the "normal" leg, they had an intra-(not inter-)individual reference for the results of the muscle biopsy after the testing protocol. Other than one might suspect, there was yet no difference between the rpS6 phosphorylation in the glycogen-depleted vs. the normal leg, which lead the scientists to conclude: These results indica

High Protein Diet vs. Insulin Sensitivity - Effective for Sedentary Women, as Well

I think while I do not have to repeat the importance of a healthy diet, especially the women among you may still think of pasta, rice, grain and vegetables as being the primary or even single ingredient in such a diet, so I consider it my duty, to report the results of a 2010 study ( Jung. 2010 ) published in the October issue of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise . The examined the effect of an exercise program and two different dietary regimens (high carbohydrate, HC vs. high protein, HP) on 181 sedentary women (44±12 yrs; 92±17 kg; 44±5 % fat). Diets consisted of 1,200 kcal/d for 1-wk and 1,600 kcal/d for 9 wks. Diets were 55% CHO, 15% P, and 30% F (HC) or 7-15% CHO, 55-63% P, and 30% F (HP) . Exercise groups participated in a supervised fitness program (3-d/wk) that involved 30 min of circuit-style resistance training interspersed with callisthenic exercises. The results are equivocal, the HOMA, i.e. an index which measures insulin resistance and sensitivity &q

HIIT-ing Health: Positive Effects of High Intensity Training on Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome

There is a demarcation-line within the fitness community: The low-intensity steady state veterans on one side of the divide, and the high-intensity revolutionizers on the other. A recent study by Shepherd et al. ( Shepherd. 2010 ) plays into the hands of the revolutionizers, as the scientists found that 6 weeks of HIIT improves whole-body fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity in young sedentary males . Eight participants (23±2 years; body mass index 24.5±1.5 kg/m 2 ; VO 2 peak 43.0±1.5 ml/min/kg) with normal glucose tolerance undertook 6 weeks of HIT consisting of between four and six 30-s Wingate tests separated by 4.5 min rest, performed three times per week . [...] VO 2 peak increased 18% (pre 43.0±1.5 ml/min/kg 2 , post 50.8±1.8 ml/min/kg 2 ; p<0.05). A 5% reduction in relative fat content in the body was observed (pre 19.6±2.2%, post 18.8±2.1%, p<0.05), which was attributed to a 6% decrease in re

Arginine + Yohimbine Effective for the Treatment of Erectile Disfunction

Although, this is a topic men do not tend to speak about, statistics say that it bothers more people than one would think: Erectile disfunction. Certainly, Viagra & Co are the most popular tweaks for "getting it up" again, a new study from Iran ( Akhondzadeh. 2010 ), however, suggests that a combination of arginine + yohimbine may prove effective, as well. In a 4-week, double blind study of parallel groups of patients with mild to moderate ED, the scientists report a significant difference in ED within the group supplemented with a one capsule of SX (a commercial preparation consisting of l-arginine + yohimbine): The difference between the two groups was significant at week 4 (endpoint) (P=0.03). Four adverse events were observed over the study. The difference between the SX and placebo was not significant in the frequency of adverse events. Unfortunately, the funding of the study suggests that there may have been a certain bias towards "proving" the advertisem

NAC Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress Induced by High Intensity Exercise

The word "anti-oxidant" has lost some of its glory within the past couple of years. In absence of overt deficiency, the real-world effects of super high doses of vitamins and other nutrients which have been found to exhibit anti-oxidant activities is negligible if not opposing to the originally intended effect. One of those anti-oxidants which may even produce adverse side effects at very high doses is N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) . For athletes who expose their bodies to a high amount of oxidative damage, NAC may yet well be a candidate for the list of basic supplements you may want to consider to take. A recent study ( Trevin. 2010 ) involving nine well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD; 27 ± 6 years of age, VO2peak 69.4 ± 5.8−1.min−1) found that a NAC -loading protocoll consisting of 2 days on 100mg/kg NAC, followed by one day with two servings of 100mg/kg and another dose of 100mg/kg 1h before a 10 minute self-paced time trial, produced the following results: Respirato

Coca Cola Financed Study Finds Beneficial Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Physical and Mental Performance

This certainly is one of the examples, where science is somewhat similar to politics: If the defense industry finances the campaign of a politic, will he to turn his back on them by reducing the expenditure on arms, will he? No? So, you better take it with a grain of skepticism that Watson et al. ( Watson. 2010 ) found that a 3% or 6% carbohydrate solution increased time to exhaustion and response time as measured by / after a series of standardized fitness tests in 10 helthy males (mean±SD age 25±3 years; height 1.75±0.06 m; mass 75.9±6.4 kg; VO 2max 54.2±5.0 ml/kg/min): Time to exhaustion in the MSFT was 9.9±2.0 min, 10.2±2.0 min, 10.9±1.9 min and 11.2±1.8 min in the no fluid, water, 3% and 6% CHO trials, respectively (p=0.004). Core temperature reached 38.9±0.4°C during the no fluid trial, 38.5±0.4°C in the water trial and 38.6±0.3°C at the end of the CHO trials (p=0.011). T

Quercitin Useless for Excercise Performance

Next to resveratrol, quercitin is unquestionable among the most advertised novel life-extension+exercise-boosting anti-oxidants. At least the last claim that quercitin may boost exercise performance appears highly questionable in view of the results of a study published by scientists from the Department of Kinesiology from the University of Georgia, USA. The scientists investigated the effect of 42-54 days of supplementation with 1 g/d of quercetin with vitamins and other substances in a soft chew or placebo chew on 58 healthy, moderately trained men and women. During a maximal effort uphill treadmill run and four physical performance measures (Army Physical Fitness Test, [APFT], Baumgartner Modified Pull-Up Test [BMPU], Wingate Anaerobic Test [WanT], and a 36.6-m sprint) peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) was evaluated before and after the supplementation period. The results are unambiguous: Pretreatment-to-posttreatment changes in VO(2peak) and physical performance were not s

Creatine Safe! For Diabetics, as Well.

Ever since creatine has been introduced to the supplement market there is a certain part of the medical establishment who condemns every body builder's favorite supplement as kidney killer no1 . While there have been numerous studies that showed that healthy people are not at risk of kidney problems or even kidney failure from creatine consumption the study by Gualano et al. (Gualano. 2010) is the first to show that even type 2 diabetics can safely consume creatine: The creatine group presented higher muscle phosphorylcreatine content when compared to placebo group (CR Pre 44 ± 10, Post 70 ± 18 mmol/kg/wt; PL Pre 52 ± 13, Post 46 ± 13 mmol/kg/wt; p = 0.03; estimated difference between means 23.6; 95% confidence interval 1.42-45.8). No significant differences were observed for (51)Cr-EDTA clearance (CR Pre 90.4 ± 16.9, Post 96.1 ± 15.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2); PL Pre 97.9 ± 21.6, Post 96.4 ± 26.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); p = 0.58; estimated difference between means -0.3; 95% confiden

Baking Soda for Tennis Players

Regular visitors of the suppversity might ask themselves "What the hell does the Prof have with his baking soda?" - well, I guess I just like it ;-) Jokes aside, a recent study ( Wu. 2010 ) examining the effect of 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (=baking soda) before a simulated tennis match confirms that this cheap powder from the kitchen cupboard has its value even for professional athletes: The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22+/-0.54; post: 2.17+/-1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23+/-0.41; post: 3.21+/-1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37+/-0.32; post: 7.37+/-0.14) but was significantly increased i

Zinc Supplementation Helps Prepubescent Children with Metabolic Syndrome

Zinc ain't for bodybuilders, only! In a double blind placebo controlled crossover study Kelishadi et al. ( Kelishadi. 2010 ) supplemented prepubescent obese children with metabolic syndrome with 20mg of elemental zinc to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures and blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, apolipoproteins A-1 (ApoA-I) and B, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leptin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), and malondialdehyde: Irrespective of the order of receiving zinc and placebo, in both groups, significant decrease was documented for Apo B/ApoA-I ratio, ox-LDL, leptin and malondialdehyde, total and LDL-cholesterol after receiving zinc without significant change after receiving placebo. In groups, hs-CRP and markers of insulin resistance decreased significantly after receiving zinc, but increased after receiving placebo. In both groups, the mean body mass index (BMI) Z-score remain

Betaine not so Effective Against Homocysteine as Previously Thought

High homocysteine levels are considered an independent risk factor of arteriosclerosis. Conversely, betaine supplementation is regarded as a possible mean to reduce homocysteine levels. A recent study (Schwab. 2010), however, indicates that - at least in young subjects - supplementation with 4mg betaine has no influence on homocysteine, HDL or LDL levels of healthy individuals: Concentrations of serum HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides or oxidized LDL did not change during the study. Plasma homocysteine concentration did not change in either of the groups. Aside from the fact, that the causative role of homocysteine is challenged by several researchers, it obviously does not make sense to preventatively supplement betaine for heart health.

Fenugreek Supplement Increases Upper- and Lower-Body Strength and Body composition

Fenugreek is an ingredient in several recently released dietary supplements , most claim to increase testosterone, something a recent study ( Poole. 2010 ) on the effect of supplementation with a commercially available 500mg fenugreek supplement does not substantiate. Table 1: Within and between group hormonal changes from baseline (T1) through week 8 (T3) If you have a look at table 1, you will see that other than advertised there was not only no raise in testosterone, but a decline! It is all the more remarkable that the intervention produced significant increases in upper- and lower-body strength and body composition in the subjects, who took part in a supervised 4-day per week periodized resistance-training program split into two upper and two lower extremity workouts per week for a total of 8-weeks: Significant group x time interaction effects were observed among groups in changes in body fat (FEN: -2.3 +/- 1.4%BF; PL: -0.39 +/- 1.6 %BF, p < 0.001) , leg press 1-RM
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