Showing posts from October, 2010

Paradoxical Effects of High Dose GPLC Supplementation

GPLC is certainly among the more promising carnitines marketed for their ergogenic effects in professional, as well as recreational athletes. Now, a very recent study by Jacobs & Goldstein, which was published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition  ( Jacobs. 2010 ), indicates that inappropriate dosing may in fact decrease athletic performance . Of the 45 resistance trained men who participated in the study one group received either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL) 90 minutes before performing two testing sessions; one with, one without GPLC supplementation. The exercise protocol itself consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. This first test was then followed by a supplementation period where subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1.5 g, 3.0 g, or 4.5 g GPLC per day for a 28 day with another third test following the four weeks of GPLC supplementation using the same testing prot

No Influence of Rest Between Sets on Creatine Kinase and Lactate Levels

Probably, you would assume that the reduction of rest in between sets from 3 minutes to 60 seconds would have an effect if not on creatine kinase, then at least on lactate levels. A recent study published in The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research refutes this common-sense assumption ( Machado. 2010 ): Each session consisted of 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 10 repetition maximum loads for the chest press, pullover, biceps curl, triceps extension, leg extension, and prone leg curl. The sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises, specifically: 60, 90, 120, 180 seconds. S erum CK and LDH were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated 24-72 hours after each session, with no significant differences between rest intervals (p = 0.94 and p = 0.99, respectively). The mechanical stress imposed by the 4 resistance exercise sessions invoked similar damage to the muscle fibers independent of the rest interval between sets. Since the exact r

Zinc Supplementation Works Within Days

Zinc is probably among the most popular bodybuilding and fitness supplements on the market. Thus, it may interest you that a recent study by Wessels et al. ( Wessels. 2010 ) found that taking supplemental zinc will increase serum zinc levels within 5 days: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 58 apparently healthy males aged 19–54 y. Participants received 1 of 3 liquid supplements daily for 21 d: 10 or 20 mg Zn/d, as Zn sulfate, or placebo. Fasting plasma Zn concentrations were measured on 14 occasions before, during, and after supplementation. [...] Controlling for baseline concentrations, plasma Zn concentrations were consistently elevated above baseline by d 5 among individuals in both of the Zn-supplemented groups compared with those receiving placebo supplements, regardless of their initial plasma Zn concentration. There were no significant group-wise differences between those who received either 10 or 20 mg/d Zn . Plasma Zn concentrat

High Fat, Low Protein to Induce Ketosis

Truly ketogenic diets have recently lost much of the attention they received at the beginning of the 21st century. And today, many people refer to every low carb diet as "keto" or being "ketogenic". Research from scientists from Germany, however, have now found that ... the absence of dietary carbohydrates per se does not induce ketosis . LC-HFDs [low carb high fat diets] must be high in fat, but also low in protein contents to be clearly ketogenic . Independent of the macronutrient composition, LC-HFD-induced weight loss is not due to increased EE and LA. So probably few of those hardcore keto-dieters out there will eventually end up in "true" ketosis. A positive thing, if you asked me, because although I am a low carb guy, I am not a no carb guy ;-)

Can Vinegar Increase Resting Energy Expenditure? In Mice it can!

Apple cider vinegar is sometimes recommended to improve digestion, all claims that it also helps with losing body weight have yet hitherto remained unsustainable. Now, the results of a recent study by Japanese scientists ( Hattori. 2010 ) suggests, that acetic acid, a main component of all types of vinegar increases resting energy expenditure in acetic acid treated mice: In this study, we investigated to determine whether a single oral administration of AcOH would increase EE in C57BL/6J mice treated with 1.5% AcOH. The AcOH treatment group had significantly higher oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), EE, and fat oxidation (FAT) than the water treatment group. Interestingly, this is only a follow-up study to previous investigations, in the course of which the same group of scientists found that acetic acid positively affects hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and that AcOH administration suppresses body fat mass and up-regulates the genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. So

Men More Prone to Lipid Induced Insulin Resistance than Women

Regardless of the low-carb-craze of the last years, there is still plenty of scientific evidence that an overtly high fat intake (especially without restricting carbohydrate intake) puts you at risk of developing insulin resistance. What's new to the findings of Hoeg et al. (Hoeg. 2010) is that men are obviously more susceptible to lipid induced insulin resistance than women. At least this is, what the data obtained from the infusion of intralipid or saline for 7h to 16 young well matched healthy men and women suggest: Intralipid infusion reduced whole body glucose infusion rate 26% in women and 38% in men (p<0.05) and insulin stimulated leg glucose uptake was reduced significantly less in women (45%) than men (60%) after intralipid infusion. So obviously, if you are a male, you got to watch your blood lipids more carefully than women. As far as the reasons for this gender-bias are concerned the scientists are at a loss: This insulin resistance

Healthy Aging: Multitude of Health Benefits from Growth Hormone Supplementation

We all do get older and, with that, our hormone levels start to decline. I know, dependent on your gender, you are most probably thinking of your "precious" testosterone or estrogen levels. Science is however just about to understand that there is way more than that to make life worth living even well before the the old age. It is this line of research to which a recent study from scientists of the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland, contributes. Table 1: Body composition, body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), body fat content in percent (BF), water content (TBW), in experimental (group I) and control (group II) groups The scientists investigated the effect of growth hormone (HGH) supplementation plus resistance training on anaerobic and aerobic power, body composition,and lipoprotein profile in middle aged me. As it is obvious from the results summarized in table 1, the additionally hGH the researchers injected to the subjects from the experimental group

Caffeine, Creatine, and Amino Acid Combo for Anaerobic Training Only

Most of the currently marketed preworkout products contain "the famous three", i.e. caffeine, creatine and some sort of amino acids, but is there science behind providing fitness junkies with specifically these nutrients before workouts? David Fukuda and his collegues say "YES" ( Fukuda. 2010 ), the combination of caffeine, creatine and amino acids is ergogenic, but only if it is taken previous to anaerobic (e.g. lifting weights, sprinting, etc.) exercise. The scientists had their 10 subjects perform a critical velocity (CV) in order to "quantify the relationship between total running distance and time to exhaustion (TTE), yielding aerobic (CV) and anaerobic parameters (anaerobic running capacity [ARC])". One group received the preworkout supplement (ACT) the other received a placebo (PL) before they completed the test at 110% vs. 90% and 105% vs. 100%, on separate occasions. Their findings are quite straight forward: The ACT elicited a 10.8% highe

Neptune Krill Oil Effective for Athletes, as well

As a reader of the SuppVersity, you already know about the positive effects of Krill Oil on blood lipids and glucose homeostasis. A very recent investigation into its effect in trained athletes (rowers) revealed significant effects on exercise recovery at only 1g/day. The polish scientists ( Scarpansca. 2010 ) report: Exercise significantly increased values of SOD, TNF-α and TBARS in both groups, but recovery levels of TBARS were significantly lower in athletes receiving Krill oil compared with the control group. Figure 1: Training schedule in the week preceding blood sample collection before, and after the supplementation period; volume in minutes per day ( Scarpansca. 2010 ) Interestingly, supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzymes, TNF-α and serum lipid profiles . So, there appear to be various reasons for very different parts of the public to consume, or rather supplement, with Krill Oil : Of yet, we know it does improve blood lipids for the ordinary couch potato o

Vitamin D Levels Associated with Adipose Fat Mass

Today is the day for our weekly news on vitamin D (never hard to find some ;-) Sciencists from Atlanta ( Lin. 2010 ) recently found that the dramatic weight loss patients experience after roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery goes hand in hand with an initial increase in plasma 25(OH)D concentration: Strong positive baseline and 1 month cross-sectional correlations between FAT and plasma 25(OH)D were observed, which remained after adjustment for age and race subgroup ( β = 0.76 and 0.61, respectively, P = 0.02) Interestingly, this intermittent increase was followed by a decreasing trend over the rest of the 24 month study period, so that Despite temporary improvement in vitamin D status, a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was observed (76, 71, 67, and 82%, at baseline, 1, 6, and 24 months, respectively), and plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in AA compared to white patients ( P < 0.05). The scientists conclude that in the course of the dramatic weigh

Neptune Krill Oil, the "New" or "Better" Fish Oil?

Its not yet in everyone's mouth, but its gaining public interest: Krill Oil , i.e. fatty acids derived from the foodstuff of whales. In a recently republished study, Canadian scientists ( Bunea. 2004 ) have investigated the effect on Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) in the clinical course of hperlipidemia and found that supplementation with 1 g and 1.5 g krill oil daily resulted in a reduction of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL, compared to both fish oil and placebo. This led the scientists to conclude: The results of the present study demonstrate within high levels of confidence that krill oil is effective for the management of hyperlipidemia by significantly reducing total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides, and increasing HDL levels. At lower and equal doses, krill oil was significantly more effective than fish oil for the reduction of glucose, triglycerides, and LDL levels. The superiority of krill oil vs. fish oil , certainly is of particular interest

Dietary Fiber Does not Significantly Reduce Mineral Absorption from Food

Other than common broscience tells you, the inclusion of healthy dietary fiber into your diet will not hinder mineral absorption. This is the result of a study by Callegaroab et al. ( Callegaroab. 2010 ) who investigated the effect of supplementation with fiber-rich multimixtures on dietary concentration and apparent absorption of minerals in rats. Their findings are unequivocal: The relative apparent calcium absorption was slightly decreased by the HF addition, with no change in the absolute apparent absorption . The absolute apparent absorption of phosphorus and magnesium was increased by the intermediate dietary fiber level MM [medium fiber] and HF [high fiber] additions , whereas the manganese absorption was increased only by the HF addition . The apparent absorption of copper was not affected by the MM supplementation. With the amount of dietary calcium being (mostly) adequate, and in view of the fact that absolute absorption did not decrease, it must be concluded tha

Vitamin D Does not Improve Muscle Strength

In view of all the hype surrounding vitamin D , I think it is my duty to report on "negative" or inconclusive results of the ongoing research of the effects what some call a vitamin, others a hormone. Stockton et al. ( Stockton. 2010 ) have now published a systematic review of the effect of vitamin D on muscle strength. After evaluating data from 52 studies, involving 5,072 participants, their conclusion is quite unambiguous: Based on studies included in this systematic review, vitamin D supplementation does not have a significant effect on muscle strength in adults with baseline 25(OH)D >25 nmol/L. However, a limited number of studies demonstrate an increase in proximal muscle strength in adults with vitamin D deficiency. Bottom line: Go see a doctor, have your vitamin D levels checked and if you are deficient (if you are living in the Nothern Hemisphere, chances are that your levels are too low especially in the winter month),

Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Alter Glucocorticoid Action on White Adipose Tissue

A very recent investigation found a possible explanation for the protective effects of high PUFA consumption against adiposity and the metabolic syndrome. On the cellular level, PUFA decreases an enzyme, called 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), which amplifies intracellular glucocorticoid action by converting inactive glucocorticoids to their active forms in vivo. Figure 1: Effect of Diet high in PUFA, SFA, TFA on enzyme activity (HSD1 basal = 10%). The scientists explain that, in mice, "adipose-specific overexpression of 11beta-HSD1 induces metabolic syndrome [...], whereas 11beta-HSD1 null mice are resistant to it." For the average human being this means avoiding overgeneration of this enzyme may well keep him/her lean. And in fact, the most effective way to do so, is to follow the general advice to avoid trans-fatty acids (TFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and consume polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) instead: 11beta-HSD1 gene expressio

Possible Side Effects of 17β-estradiol and Tamoxifen Treatment

Treatment with estrogens, mainly in women, and selective estrogen modulators (SERMS), which are also interesting for the average juicer, may yield hitherto unknown metabolic side effects. Scientists from Portugal ( Moreira. 2010 ) have found that both, tamoxifen as well as estrogen treatment influence the oxidative capacity of mitochondria: Fig. 1. Effects of E2 and/or TAM treatments on glutathione levels of liver, heart and brain mitochondria. ( Moreira. 2010 ) In spite of the distinct effect on glutathione levels, their effect on lipid peroxidation appears to be contrary: TBARS levels were used to determine the extension of lipid peroxidation (PX) induced by the pro-oxidant pair ADP/Fe 2+ . Fig. 3 A shows that liver mitochondria isolated from E2 + TAM females in the presence of ADP/Fe 2+ produced significantly lower levels of TBARS when compared with liver mitochondria isolated from the other groups of experimental animals. No significant alterations were observed in brai

L-Carnitine Changes Gene Transcription in Muscle - After all, it Works!

L-Carnitine has long been among my favorites of expensive supplements with ostensibly conclusive scientific background which are pretty worthless in practice. Now, a new study by Keller et al. ( Keller. 2010 ) found that L-Carnitine supplementation in piglets had a distinct effect on gene expression in skeletal muscle: Transcript profiling revealed 211 genes to be differentially expressed in muscle by carnitine supplementation. The identified genes were mainly involved in molecular processes such as cytoskeletal protein binding, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding, transcription factor activity, and insulin receptor binding. Identified genes with the molecular function transcription factor activity encoded primarily transcription factors, most of which were down-regulated by carnitine, including pro-apoptotic transcription factors such as proto-oncogene c-fos, proto-oncogene c-jun and activating transcription factor 3. Furthermore, atrophy-related genes such as atrogin-1, MuRF1

Fish Oil Makes You Lean and Healthy

In a very recent study, which is going to be published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition Noreen investigated the effect of  4g/d of fish oil supplying 1,600mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) over 6 weeks on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and salivary cortisol in 44 healthy men and women (34+13y, mean+SD. The results were quite astonishing: Compared to the safflower oil group (SO), there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with fish oil (FO) (FO= +0.5 +/- 0.5kg, SO= -0.1 +/- 1.2kg, p=0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO= -0.5 +/- 1.3kg, SO= +0.2 +/- 1.2kg, p=0.04). and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO= -0.4 +/- 1.3% body fat, SO= +0. 3 +/- 1.5% body fat, p=0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO= 0.0 +/- 0.9kg, SO= +0.2 +/- 0.8kg), RMR (FO= +17 +/- 260kcal, SO= -62 +/- 184kcal) or respiratory exchange

Marathon Runners do not Benefit from Concurrent Strength Training

If you are an avid reader of fitness magazines, you will certainly be familiar with the advice not to neglect strength training, even if your fitness goals are by no means strength-related. While this advice is certainly sound in view of "overall fitness" or weight loss, a recent study by Ferrauti et el. ( Ferruti. 2010 ) found that recreational marathon runners are just wasting their time if they add 2x 120 min weight-lifting sessions to their weekly training regimens. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s-1) were identical in both groups . [...] No significant differences between the groups and no significant interaction (time × intervention) were found for V?o2 (absolute and relative to VO2peak) at defined marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s-1) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L-1). Stride length and stride frequency also remained u

2g Arginine /Day Induce Vasolidation and Increase VO2Max in Male Soccer Players

Regular readers of the SuppVersity will know that - despite the recent bashing of arginine by the some supplement producers - I like this universal amino acid AND studies supporting the notion of athletes being able to benefit from arginine supplementation keep coming. The most recent one was done by Kamil et al. ( Kamil. 2010 ) and investigated the effect of 2g pure l-arginine on vasolidation and VO2Max in soccer players. Their findings were as follows: Oral supplementation of L-arginine significantly (p<0.01) decreased blood pressure indices and increased VO 2 max (p<0.01), blood flow (p<0.05), femoral artery diameter (p<0.05) and urea levels (p<0.05). There was no change in blood lipid levels (p<0.05). No significant changes were noted in the placebo and control groups. The increase in VO2Max, as shown in Table 1 was relatively low, though. Yet, it's statistical significance stands out of question. L-Arginine Placebo Control

DHEA Protects Rat Livers on a High Fat Diet

First of all, rats are not a particularly good model for DHEA metabolism in human beings. Nevertheless, the results of a study by Magyar et al. ( Magyar. 2010 ) would warrant further investigations into the effectiveness of high dose DHEA supplementation on total scavenger capacity and liver fat content in men. In the course of a 28 day intervention the scientists fed rats on either a normal or a high fat diet and supplemented their drinking water with no DHEA (Control), 400µg DHEA (DHEA) and 150µg DHEA-Sulfate (DHEA-S). Table 1: Fresh frozen liver fat content, SOD, catalase and GST activity results on Day 28 As the figures in Table 1 indicate both, DHEA and DHEA-S were able to reduce the negative effect of the high fat diet on liver fat content and oxidant status (as measured by SOD-, Catalase and GST activity). This is an interesting result, of which the scientists write: Our results support the hypothesis that DHEA and DHEAS supplementation can improve the antioxidant status

Zinc and Vitamin A Can Protect Your Testis Against Alcohol

While most gymrats abstain from alcohol, anyway, some do not mind the occasional binge drinking and other consume drugs and "supplements" which may as well increase testicular malonaldehyde (MDA) content to potentially dangerous levels. To this group of people it may thus be of special interest that scientists ( Xie. 2010 ) from the Center for Desease Prevention and Control in Shijiazhuang, China , have found that vitamin a and zinc supplementation at a human equivalent dose of 8µg vitamin A/kg and 1.3mg zinc gluconate/kg effectively protects rat testis against MDA induced damage: Histological evaluation for testes revealed that seminiferous epithelium was disorganized and the sertoli cells and germ cells were degenerated in alcohol-treated rats.Zinc or vitamin A supplementation decreased the testicular mitochondrial MDA formation and the expression of iNOS in testes ,as a result,the germ cells degeneration was improved,sperm counting and motility were higher than those in

Coffee Manooloigosaccharides Augment Weight Loss in Overweight Men

Certainly, you have heard that coffee is supposed to help with weight los; conversely, you probably won't have imaginged that it may not be the caffeine in everyones favorite baverage which does the magic. A recent study by Salinardi et al. ( Salinardi. 2010 ) investigating the effect of 4g/day coffee manooloigosaccharides on weight loss in 54 overweight men and women (BMI 27-33) came to the surprising conclusion that this hitherto overlooked coffee ingredient positively influences weight loss in men, but has no apparent effect on women: There was a significant beverage x time interaction on total body volume, total adipose tissue (TAT) and total subcutaneous adipose tissue in men, but not in women. Men consuming the MOS beverage had a greater percent change in total body volume and tended to have greater percent changes in subcutaneous and TAT compared with the placebo group. The gender difference hints at some hormonal background of the effectiveness / ineffectiveness of MOS in

Leucine + Whey = Upper Body Strength and Mass Gains

In a very recent study, Walker et. al. ( Walker. 2010 ) investigated the effect of 8 weeks whey-Protein and leucine Supplementation on physical and cognitive performance. The provided 30 moderately fit individuals with 19.7g whey and 6.2 g leucine (WPL) or a calorie-equivalent placebo (P) and put them on a standardized exercise regimen. The results suggests that the availability of high quality protein adds to the protein anabolic effect of leucine to produce strength and lean mass gains: Bench-press performance increased significantly from Week 1 to Week 8 in the WPL group, whereas the increase in the P group was not significant. Push-up performance increased significantly for WPL, and P showed a nonsignificant increase. Total mass, fat-free mass, and lean body mass all increased significantly in the WPL group but showed no change in the P group. Are you missing something? Yes? To be honest, I cannot tell you about the effect on cognitive performance, because, obviously, the author

Pre-Workout Supplementation with BCAAs Attenuates Muscle Damage from Squats

We all know it, the squat, the king of all exercises is notorious for inducing deep onset muscle soreness within the next 48 hours. While, against common wisdom, this is not a reliable indicator for muscle damage, science tells us that squatting at high intensities will exert a certain amount of damage to the fibers of your quads, glutes and hamstrings. Kazunori Mawatari has now found that providing the participants of his study with 100mg/kg BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine = 1:2.3:1.2) before the squatting for 7 sets of 20 squats/set with 3-min intervals between sets. Significantly lowered the level of soreness the participants experienced 2-3 day after the trial. What is yet of greater importance is the influence of BCAA supplementation on muscle-force and indizes of muscle damage: Leg-muscle force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions was measured 2 d after exercise (Day 3), and the BCAA supplementation suppressed the muscle-force decrease (to ~80% of the value recor

Pseudo-Ephedrine Improves Cycling Performance in Trained Athletes

As Wikipedia knows, other than its banned brother "real" ephedrine, "pseudoephedrine sulfate are found in many over-the-counter preparations either as a single ingredient or, more commonly, in combination with antihistamines, guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and/or NSAIDs." With these medications being readily available from the average Athlete's poison cabinet, it might be of particular interest, that Pritchard-Peschek et al. ( Pritchard-Peschek. 2010 ) found that ingestion of 180 mg of pseudoephedrine (PSE) had immediate positive effects on cycling time-trial (TT) performance in six well-trained male cyclists and triathletes (age 33 ± 2 yr, mass 81 ± 8 kg, height 182.0 ± 6.7 cm, VO2max 56.8 ± 6.8 ml · kg–1 · min–1; M ± SD): PSE improved cycling TT performance by 5.1% (95% CI 0–10%) compared with PLA (28:58.9 ± 4:26.5 and 30:31.7 ± 4:36.7 min, respectively). There was a significant Treatment × Time interaction (p = .04) for NE, with

Bench Press Before Triceps Extensions: Conventional Wisdom or Conventional Bullshit?

It is set in stone that you first do your bench presses and then finish up with some sort of triceps exercise. A group of scientists from Brazil ( Simao. 2010 ) wanted to check, whether doing it the other way around may not have its own, unique benefits and - you knew it - it has! The 31 participants who had a military background were randomly assigned to one of three groups, the first of which began with large and progressed toward small muscle group exercises (LG-SM) while another started with small and advanced to large muscle group exercises (SM-LG). The exercise order for LG-SM was bench press (BP), lat pull-down (LPD), triceps extension (TE), and biceps curl (BC). The order for the SM-LG was BC, TE, LPD, and BP. The third group served as a control group (CG). Figure 1: 1RM tests and muscle thickness effect sizes and magnitudes across 12 weeks of resistance training. Although the overall effect size was relatively small, the results suggest that conventional wisdom is mislea

Whey Protein Isolate Increases Strength Gains over Carbohydrate Control

Regular readers of the SuppVersity, won't be surprised to hear that Cooke et al. ( Cooke. 2010 ) found that supplementing a group of 17 previously untrained participants (23 +/- 5 yr, 180 +/- 6 cm, 80 +/- 11 kg) with a) whey protein isolate (WPH; n=9) or b) carbohydrate (CHO; n=8) at 1.5 g/ supplement (~30 g consumed immediately, and then once with breakfast, lunch, in the afternoon and after the evening meal) for 14 days resulted in a significant positive effect on exercise recovery and plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels: Figure 1: Strength development in a) whey and b) carbohydrate groups. ( Cooke. 2010 ) Isometric knee extension strength was significantly higher following WPH supplementation 3 (P<0.05) and 7 (P<0.01) days into recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage compared to CHO supplementation. In addition, strong tendencies for higher isokinetic forces (extension and flexion) were observed during the recovery p

EPA Reverses Insulin Resistance by Modulation of Adipose Tissue Inflammation

If you are about my age, your mother probably did not tell you to have your *yummie* cod liver oil , did she? Turns out, that was a bad mistake, especially if - other than my mum - your mother relied heavily on convenient foods and did not have an eye on your consumption of candy and dietary fats. The reason I am coming up with childhood memories is the publication of a study by Kalupahan et al. (Kalupahan. 2010) which confirms the positive effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on prevention (P) and reversal (R) of high saturated-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and glucose-insulin homeostasis.  In contrast [to the mice fed a high fat diet without supplemental EPA], mice fed the HF-EPA-P diet maintained normal glucose tolerance despite weight gain compared with the LF group. Whereas the HF group developed hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, both HF-EPA groups (P and R) exhibited normal glycemia and insulinemia. Further, plasma adiponectin concentration was lower in the HF group

Magnesium Absorption: Better Use Tablets Than Caps

The Internet is full of bro-scientific advice on which form of supplemental minerals is the best for you. The form, i.e. tablet or capsule, of the supplement is yet hardly ever discussed. Researchers from Bonn (Germany) ( Siener. 2010 ) have now found that magnesium from effervescent tablets is better absorbed than from capsules: With standardized conditions, urinary magnesium excretion increased by 40% after ingestion of the effervescent tablets, and by only 20% after intake of the capsules. The results indicate better bioavailability of magnesium from the effervescent tablets than from the capsules. This may be attributed to the fact that the tablets have to be dissolved in water before ingestion so that magnesium becomes ionized, which is an important precondition for absorption. Bottom line, when you purchase your next magnesium supplement consider its form as well as its content; and prefer tablets over caps.

"Pecs Like A Chicken?" Chromium Improves Body Composition (in Broiler Chickens)

Some supplements have been there forever, eg. creatine , others re-appear from time to time. Chromium is among the last group of supplemental nutrients which have been en-vogue a few years ago and are mostly neglected these days. With a recent study by Ibrahim et al. your interest in the effects of chromium on body composition may yet raise, again. The scientists fed four groups of broiler chickens (I know no humans ;-) a 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg cr-yeast/kg diet respectively. The results were quite interesting: Chromium yeast supplementation treatments caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in plasma glucose levels , while supplemented Cr-yeast at levels of 1 (T3), 1.5 (T4), 2 (T5) mg/kg diet resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in total protein and globulin as compared to control group. Alsosupplemented 0.5 (T2) or 2 (T5) mg Cr-yeast resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in total lipid in plasma, whereas cholesterol levels which were significantly (p<

Caffeine & Exercise Performance: Is it all Placebo?

Lot's of recreational athletes (me included) swear by it: caffeine before workout! Now, a study by Micheal ( Michael. 2010 ) is suggesting that we could as well pop candy, as long as we believed it had caffeine in it: As it is obvious from figure 1, the difference between subjects who were only told they received caffeine (5mg/kg), but did not (CP) and the group of participants who received placebo (CP), but thought they had taken caffeine, is negligible and statistically not significant . What's even more interesting is that the group who received placebo, but thought they had received caffeine (PC), also performed within the same margin as the CC group. Due to the fact, that the 12 males (mean ± SD = 23.5 ± 3.5 years, 75.3 ± 12.2 kg, 177 ± 0.7 cm; years participating in competitive sport = 8.3 ± 2.5 years) who participated in the study were athletes and only habitual coffee drinkers, the results of the study suggest that 5mg/kg caffeine ingestion before exercise does not
Disclaimer:The information provided on this website is for informational purposes only. It is by no means intended as professional medical advice. Do not use any of the agents or freely available dietary supplements mentioned on this website without further consultation with your medical practitioner.