|Science is a social endeavor. Those who fail to realize that will never reach their full intellectual capacity.|
"These preliminary data suggest that dietary omega 6:3 ratio is inversely associated with physical and cognitive function in older adults" (Gurevich. 2016).Now, this does mean that "consuming a diet with a lower omega-6: omega-3 ratio may promote the maintenance of physical and cognitive function in aging" (ibid. | my emphasis), but this hypothesis is based on correlation and needs to be confirmed in longitudinal RCTs" (ibid.).
- No extra-protein necessary after starvation: Data from a recent study suggest that supplementing energy adequate high protein (~2.0 g·kg-1·d-1) diets with additional protein does not enhance LBM recovery from short-term starvation (Sepowitz. 2016).
Protein Intake & Muscle Catabolism: Fasting Gnaws on Your Muscle Tissue and Abundance Causes Wastefulness - More will thus not help more. Even if more is extremely more, you won't gain more or lose less. You will waste more protein, though... | Learn more!
Supplements were consumed daily, in addition to their self-selected, ad libitum diet. Dietary intake was calculated using 24-hr recalls and body composition measurements were repeated at the end of REC.
For all participants, total body mass (TBM) (7.2 ± 1.0%; 5.8 ± 1.0 kg; P < 0.05) and CSA (5.9 ± 2.2%; P < 0.05) was lower POST SERE compared to BASELINE. The decline in LBM (4.7 ± 2.5%; 3.1 ± 1.6 kg; P < 0.05) accounted for 53% of the TBM loss. During REC, no differences were observed in total energy intake when self-selected diets and supplement intake were combined (4498 ± 1191 kcal/d; P > 0.05); however, per study design, protein intake was significantly different between groups (high carbohydrate: 1.9 ± 0.6 g/kg/d; moderate protein: 3.1 ± 0.9 g/kg/d; high protein: 3.4 ± 0.9 g/kg/d; P < 0.01). At REC, and independent of group assignment, all participants regained TBM (8.0 ± 2.8%), LBM (5.7 ± 2.9%), and CSA (7.4 ± 3.2%) from POST SERE deficits, resulting in no differences between BASELINE and REC measures (P > 0.05).
Can Stevia Help You Ward Off Type II Diabetes? A Review | more
Both groups show comparable decreases in blood glucose levels in OGTT, suggesting that muscle-damaging exercise does not appear to decrease but rather improve glycemic control in men.
- "Energy Not Protein Or Carbohydrate Intake Attenuates Whole-body Protein Loss During 4-d Arctic Military Training": The telling title tells it all (Margolis. 2016).HMB 'Likely' Protects 'Muscle Quality' & 'Possibly' to 'Likely' Cuts Inflammation During 23-Day Intense Military Training | read the full article in the SV archives.
Energy expenditure (D218O) and energy intake were measured daily. Nitrogen balance (NBAL) and whole-body protein turnover were determined at baseline (BL) and on day 3 of AMT using 24 h urine collections and [15N]-glycine.
Protein and carbohydrate intake were highest (P < 0.05) for PRO (mean ± SE, 2.0 ± 0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) and CHO (5.8 ± 0.3 g·kg-1·d-1) but only CHO (3131 ± 122 kcal·d-1) statistically increased (P < 0.05) energy intake above CON (2506 ± 99kcal·d-1). Energy expenditure (6155 ± 60 kcal·d-1) and energy deficit (3313 ± 93 kcal·d-1) were similar across groups. Whole-body net protein balance (-0.24 ± 0.11 g·d-1) and NBAL (-77.1 ± 10.9 mg·kg-1·d-1) were negative at the conclusion of AMT in all groups. In a combined cohort, consuming more energy was associated with higher (P < 0.05) net protein balance (r = 0.57) and NBAL (r = 0.60), independent of macronutrient intake. Soldiers consuming the most energy (3754 ± 94 kcal·d-1) also consumed more (P < 0.05) protein (2.1 ± 0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) and carbohydrate (6.6 ± 0.3 g·kg-1·d-1) than those who consumed the least amount of energy (1783 ± 113 kcal·d-1, 1.2 ± 0.1 g protein·kg-1·d-1 and 3.3 ± 0.3 g carbohydrate·kg-1·d-1), and achieved net protein balance and NBAL during AMT.
- Concomittant training doesn't mess with satellite cells? Not really... While a recent study that combined HIIT session with resistance training (RE) shows that the extra-work does not interfere with the increase in satellite cell density when compared to RE only. However following the concurrent exercise, in this study, there are fewer active satellite cells. "This may attenuate the number of myogenic precursors cells, a key requirement for hypertrophy" (Pugh. 2016) - learn more in this SV article => "Growing Beyond Limits"
- Elliptical trainer overestimates energy expenditure: Bad news for CICO over-believers - If you eat "what you burn" (allegedly) you'll get fat (McLaughlin. 2016)
A linear regression model was used to evaluate the ability of the elliptical EE to predict measured EE. Significance for all statistical measures was held at an alpha level of 0.05. The difference between EE estimates from the elliptical and measured VO2 was significant (p<0.0001), with the elliptical machine overestimating EE during a 15 minute session by an average of 10.21 kcals. Measured EE in kcals as derived from open circuit spirometry was significantly predicted by elliptical EE according to the equation: Measured EE = 0.95*(Elliptical EE) - 3.161.
- Stable (normal) weight = reduced breast cancer risk: Weight gain and cycling are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, and endometrial cancer, study shows (Welti. 2016).
Participants included 87,882 postmenopausal women (50-79 yrs) from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, categorized by self-reported weight change (weight stable, steady weight gain, lost weight, weight cycled) during adulthood (18-50 yrs). Adjudicated incident breast, colorectal, and endometrial cancer events were collected annually over 20 yrs. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Relative risk increase for breast, colorectal and endomitrial cancer in post-menopausal women (Welti. 2016)
- Training your biceps everyday may not be as bad as you'd think: At least in a recent 21-day study, the daily workouts produced both, size and strength gains.
Using a within subject design, five trained individuals were assigned both a control and experimental arm in a randomized fashion. The control arm performed a one repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) every day for 21 straight days, while the experimental arm performed the same 1RM and MVC test in addition to three sets of elbow flexion exercises at 70% 1RM. Pre to post muscle thickness and strength differences within each condition and median differences between conditions were determined using non-parametric Wilcoxin tests. All significance was set at p≤ .05. Data are presented as median (25th, 75th percentile).
Changes in mean muscle size of the biceps after 21 days of training (Dankel. 2016) Raw Milk + Honey Accelerates DOMS Recovery of Trained Athletes Compared to Chocolate Milk, But There's a Catch | read more in this SV Classic
The retention of fluid volume following milk ingestion may be important in situations where frequent work breaks need to be avoided," the authors conclude based on comparison that involved water, coffee, orange juice or semi-skimmed milk.
- Hypohydration has your brain shrivel away... temporarily: Scientists from the East Carolina University had nine physically active adults (four male, five female; 23.9 ± 9.3 y | Wittbrodt. 2016) complete three experimental sessions: control (no exercise/heat exposure; CON), HYPO induced by 2.5 h intermittent walking in 45°C, 15% RH, and euhydration (EUH), 2.5 h intermittent walking in the heat with water ingestion to match sweat loss. Brain morphology was assessed using T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images after a 1 h cool down.
Body mass loss was -2.8 ± 0.6% during HYPO with no sex differences (-2.9 ± 0.3, -2.7 ± 0.9%). Men had greater intracranial, cortical white matter, and subcortical grey matter volume (thalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala) compared to women (p < 0.05) cortical grey or white matter volume; but, tended to decrease (p = 0.06) subcortical grey matter by -1.4% (ES: 0.76) and increase (p < 0.05) ventricular volume by 12.5% (ES: 1.6) and cerebrospinal fluid volume by 13.7% (ES: 1.7) compared to EUH. In contrast, EUH differed (p < 0.05) from CON with lower ventricular and cerebrospinal fluid volumes (-5.1%, ES: 0.72; -6.2%, ES: 1.13) but higher intracranial volume (1.4%; ES: 0.84) compared to CON. Intracranial volume was also lower (p < 0.05) by 1.1% (ES: 0.71) during HYPO vs. EUH.
If you want to stay smart, you should join hands w/ water | more!
- If you include EPOC, exercise may burn much more energy than you'd though: The purpose of a recent study from the San Diego State University compared the measured versus predicted caloric cost of prolonged exercise using various work to rest cycles (Pautz. 2016).
Ten subjects performed 2 hours of exercise on a treadmill using six different work to rest cycles. Subjects performed in a random order the following six isocaloric protocols:A: 3.0 mph,1.7% grade; 30 min rest, 30 min workB:3.5 mph, 3.8% grade; 20 min work, 40 min restC: 3.0 mph,1.7% grade; 30 min work, 30 min restD: 2.5 mph, 1% grade; 40 min work, 20 min restE: 2.0 mph, 1% grade; 50 min work, 10 min restF: 1.5 mph, 1.7% grade; 60 min work, 0 min restOxygen consumption was measured every minute using a metabolic cart.
Comparison of measured vs. predicted energy expenditure durin 2h of work and rest (Pautz. 2016).
"The increased caloric cost during the resting component is believed to be due to excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. These results suggest that predictive formulas significantly underestimate the total caloric cost during work/rest exercise. Work/rest cycles utilized in an occupational setting may underestimate the total amount of work performed and result in chronic caloric deficits," Pautz et al. (2016) conclude.
Athletes and alcohol don't mix, right? If we go by the results of a recent rodent study, this long-standing recommendation appears to be unwarranted for athletes whose main concern are increases in muscle size. Eventually, the jury is however still out there... and chronic alcohol intake certainly ain't conducive for your strength & size gains | more
A significant main effect (p<0.05) for time was found for mTOR phosphorylation; mTOR phosphorylation was higher at +3h (ALC: 0.102 ± 0.014 AU; PLA: 0.085 ± 0.009 AU) than at PRE (ALC: 0.111 ± 0.021 AU; PLA: 0.112 ± 0.010 AU) and at +5h (ALC: 0.097 ± 0.016; PLA: 0.088 ± 0.007 AU). A trend (p =0.052) for time was found for S6K1 phosphorylation suggesting greater phosphorylation at +3h compared to Pre and +5h. No significant differences between conditions or over time were found for 4E-BP1 phosphorylation.
- Whey way more insulinogenic in women: In a recent study 5 health young men and 5 likewise young women consumed 20g/200 mL whey peptide in water after a 12h fast (Kakigi. 2016). One hour after intake of whey peptide, muscle and blood samples were collected. Muscle samples were used to determine the phosphorylation status of mTOR (Ser2448) and S6K1 (Thr389) by using Western blot analysis. Blood insulin and essential amino acid concentration were measured at commercially available laboratories.
Interestingly, the whey peptide intake significantly increased the concentration of serum insulin in women (p<0.05), whereas it did not change in men.
That's news: First study to show that whey peptides spikes insulin in women, but not men (Kagigi. 2016).
- Dehydration worsens your glucose response by 9%: In a randomized-crossover design, five healthy individuals (80 % male) aged 28 ± 4 y, were dehydrated in a sauna (55–85°C) for 45 minutes between 1700–1900 hours, before either remaining dehydrated (consuming maximum 200 mL) or rehydrating with 150 % of individual weight losses throughout the evening. Participants then arrived at the laboratory the next morning in a fasted state at 0800 hours and provided a urine sample to verify hydration status based on urine osmolality, before commencing an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose solution in 89 mL water). Venous blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 15 minutes for 120 minutes. Trials were separated by seven days, with diet and physical activities replicated for 24 h prior to each. Data were analysed via visual checking of trends and calculating the incremental area under the curve (iAUC).
Ok, the effect is not earth-shattering, but should be kept in mind when you monitor your glucose levels (Carrol. 2016). Coffee beats caffeine in the gym | more
- If volume is the focus of training (i.e., hypertrophy phases), the rest-pause resistance training method should be utilized when bench pressing, study shows: A recent study compared one repetition maximum (1RM), muscle activity (EMG), and volume differences between rest-pause or traditional resistance training (Korak. 2016). Trained males (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either a rest-pause or a traditional training group. Training sessions were completed twice a week for 4 weeks and consisted of four sets of bench press to volitional fatigue at 80% of pretest 1RM with 2-minutes rests between sets. Each participant completed a bench press 1RM before and after the training intervention. Total volume completed was recorded on each training day. Muscle activity of the pectoralis major was measured on the first and last training days. The RMS signals of the last repetition in the last set were normalized to the RMS peak values of the first repetition in the first set for each participant during the 1st and 8th training sessions.
A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated both groups significantly increased their 1RMs following the four week training protocol (p < .05). However, no significant differences were found in 1RM and muscle activity between the two groups (p > .05).
The rest-pause technique allowed the subjects to lift sign. more weight (Korak. 2016).
Reason enough for the scientists to conclude: "While strength and muscle activity changes did not differ between groups, the rest-pause group achieved greater increases in volume than the traditional group. If volume is the focus of training (i.e., hypertrophy phases), the rest-pause resistance training method should be utilized. Future studies should assess changes in muscle size between these bench press methods" (Korak. 2016).
Two Crazy, but Scientifically Proven Workouts for You to Try if You Want to Gain Muscle While Losing Fat or Cut Your Body Fat in Half to Finally Reach a Sub 10% Body Fat Level | more
In those people, "[t]he top five perceived hardest workouts based on frequency were Fran (47), Murph (27), Fight Gone Bad (10), Helen (9) and Filthy 50 (9)" and only one subject of the 101 CrossFit® participants reported ER. Working out augments and prolongs protein synthesis in response to protein ingestion: Cleverly done study confirms what you probably already expected.
Retrospective signalling analysis was carried out on muscle tissue from a previously published study. Twenty-three resistance trained males consumed a high protein breakfast before resting for 3 h. Following a bout of unilateral resistance exercise (8 × 10 leg press and leg extension exercises; 80% 1 RM) participants consumed a whey protein isolate drink (containing 10, 20 or 40 g protein). The activity of p70S6K1 was measured at 0 and 4 h in rested and exercised legs using a [γ-32P] ATP kinase assay. Statistical analysis of the fold change (0-4 h) in p70S6K1 activity between rested and exercised legs was conducted using a paired samples t-test (protein doses were pooled). Linear regression analysis was performed on the difference in fold change of p70S6K1 between rested and exercised (x-axis) against the previously published myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis data (y-axis). Effect sizes were calculated and reported as Cohen’s d with confidence intervals (CI).
Fold-change in muscle protein synthesis in trained and untrained arm after the ingestion of 40g (Manaughton. 2016). HIIT vs. Steady-State for Fat Loss: Can EPOC Explain the Benefits of Intense Interval Training (HIIT, SIE, HIE)? | more.
- Traditional, Contrast, And Pre-exhaustive Training: A recent study investigated the extent of recovery from the acute effect of three resistance-training modalities, Traditional Training (TT), Contrast Training (CT) and Pre-Exhaustive Training (PE), using three performance measures critical to power performance sports. Ten (7 male and 3 female) participants age 22.2 +/- 1.62 yrs, height 180.66 +/- 9.08 cm, weight 75.85 +/- 8.2 kg, percent body fat 16.5 +/- 7.22 % participated in the study. The average 1-RM squat was 105.23 +/- 37.76 kg. Training modalities were randomized prior to testing. One hour following training sessions, participants were tested on three performance measures in the following order: vertical jumping (VJ; height, cm), T-test for agility (T-test; time, sec), and repeated sprint (RS; time, sec).
Supersetting is fun, time-efficient, exhausting and based on the reasonable assumption that you can benefit from training agonist + antagonist together, but does it build size & strength? more
"Significant differences in performance were found between the TT, CT, and PE treatments and Control protocols in maximal vertical jump height, agility capabilities, and repeated sprint ability. These data suggest that modifying exercise order beyond traditional resistance-training protocols might improve performance variables due to improved recovery and improved efficiency during subsequent same-day training," the authors conclude.
- Exercise order matters for fat burning: The order of exercise between aerobic and resistance exercises does not affect substrate oxidation during aerobic exercise, but aerobic exercise before resistance exercise enhanced fat oxidation during post-exercise period more so than when resistance exercise precedes aerobic exercise (Morishima. 2016).
- Aziz, et al. "Effect Of Acute Alcohol Ingestion On Resistance Exercise-Induced Muscle MTORC1 Signaling In Women." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 581.
- Bellovari, et al. "The Perceived Demands of CrossFit®" Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 860.
- Carrol, et al. "The Effect of Hydration Status on Glycemic Control: A Pilot Study." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 745.
- Dankel, et al. "Muscle adaptation to 21 Straight Days of Elbow Flexor Exercise in Trained Individuals." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 452.
- Galloway, et al. "Hydration Potential of Commonly Consumed Drinks in an Office-Working Environment." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 567.
- Gurevich, et al. "Correlations Between Omega-6: Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio and Physical and Cognitive Function in Older Adults." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 422.
- Ho, et al. "Improved Glucose Tolerance By An Acute Bout Of Muscle Damaging Exercise." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 899.
- Kakigi, et al. "Dose-Dependent Effects of Whey Peptide Intake on mTOR Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 584.
- Korak, et al. "Effects Of Rest-pause Vs Traditional Bench Press Training On Muscle Strength, Electromyography, And Lifting Volume." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 807.
- Macnaughton, et al. "Resistance Exercise Sustains p70S6K1 Activity in Response to Protein Ingestion at 4 hours." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 819.
- Margolis, et al. "Energy Not Protein Or Carbohydrate Intake Attenuates Whole-body Protein Loss During 4-d Arctic Military Training." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 444.
- Morishima, et al. "Impact Of Order Of Exercises On Substrate Oxidation In Healthy Men." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 1026.
- Pugh, et al. "Satellite Cell Reponse to Concurrent Resistance Exercise and High Intensity Interval Training in Overweight/Obese Individuals." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 453–454.
- Sanders, et al. "The Effect of Caffeine Supplementation on Power and Fatigue in Recreationally Trained College Aged Male." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 857.
- Sepowitz, et al. "Supplementing An Energy Adequate High Protein Diet With Additional Protein Is Not Necessary For Recovery Of Lean Body Mass After Short-term Starvation." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 443.
- Simmons, et al. "EPOC Following High Intensity Aerobic Intervals and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 863.
- Sokmen, et al. "The Effects Of Traditional, Contrast, And Pre-exhaustive Training Methods On Performance Variables." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 942.
- Welti, et al. "Weight Fluctuation And Cancer Risk In Post-Menopausal Women: The Women’s Health Initiative." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 514.
- Wittbroth, et al. "Impact Of Hypohydration And Exercise-heat Stress On Brain Structure In Men And Women." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 566–567.