Saturday, July 23, 2016

Casein & Fat Oxid., Protein, BCAA, T-Booster, Omega-3, Beta-Alanine, GABA, PWO Caffeine, Rhodiola, Pepermint Oil, Hunger, HIIT, Crossfit, Ketone Supps, ZMA & DAA

Science Round-Up July '16
Whoo... those were ~1000 presentations and poster abstracts in the May 2016 supplement of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise and not each of them was exactly "exciting". In order to save you the trouble of going through all of them, I have picked 16 of them and put them together in a Science Round-Up that spans from taking casein before bed and its effects on your nightly fat oxidation over the long-term (20 weeks!) performance benefits of beta-alanine and GABA's astonishing ability to boost your gains, to the insulin-boosting effects of ketones (+100%). Enjoy.
There were also a few studies on periodization schemes - nothing new, though

30% More on the Big Three: Squat, DL, BP!

Mix Things Up to Make Extra-Gains

Linear vs. Undulating Periodizationt

12% Body Fat in 12 Weeks W/ Periodizatoin

Detraining + Periodization - How to?

Tapering 101 - Learn How It's Done!
  • Taking casein before bed won't ruin your nightly fat burning: "SCAAT lipolysis and next morning fat oxidation, metabolic rate and blood markers were similar between CAS and PLA. CAS before bed did not promote fat storage and may help with long-term weight control," (Kinsey. 2016) Dymatize sponsored study shows.
  • 1.76 g/kg/d protein that's what active women need: After a 2-d controlled diet, 7 females (~21y, ~63kg, ~23% body fat, ~47 mL O2/kg/min) completed 2–7 metabolic trials during the luteal phase that each involved the performance of variable intensity exercise (modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test) followed by 8 hourly mixed meals providing a variable protein intake (0.2-2.6g/kg/d), 6g/kg/d of carbohydrate, and sufficient energy. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acids modeling the amino acid profile of egg protein with the exception of tyrosine (40mg/kg/d) and the indicator phenylalanine (30.5 mg/kg/d with 5.46 mg/kg over 4h as L-[13C]phenylalanine). Breath13CO2 enrichment (isotope ratio mass spectroscopy) and CO2 production (indirect calorimetry) were used to calculate 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2) with bi-phase linear regression analysis used to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) as the breakpoint and safe intake as the upper 95% CI.
    Figure 1: Women, unlike men have increased protein requirements, when training intensely (Wooding. 2016)
    Preliminary analysis (n=33 trials) revealed F13CO2 conformed to a bi-phase model (r2=0.65; P<0.01) with an EAR for protein determined as 1.41g/kg/d and a safe intake of 1.76 g/kg/d and has the scientists conclude that Our results suggest that the safe protein intake for active females during the luteal phase is 47-120% greater than the RDA in non-active individuals and is at the upper range of recommendations for athletes based on NBAL (i.e. 1.2-1.7g/kg/d, ACSM).

    What is particularly interesting: That's more than the authors' previous study using the IAAO in active males (i.e. 1.35g/kg/d) suggested - in that study, protein requirements were not affected by intensity exercise.
  • BCAAs benefits on your muscle are mediate by insulin - Only by insulin! "If BCAA are augmented by insulin (which happens if you eat them with carbs), they will suppress muscle protein breakdown with no changes in muscle protein synthesis, study in seven healthy young subjects (gender, 4M/3F; age, 19±1 years; BMI, 23±1) who were infused with BCAA (5 umol/kg/min) for six hours (BCAA) and insulin [either 40 mu/m2/min (n=3) or 80 mu/m2/min (n=4)] during the last three hours of the BCAA infusion, shows (Katsanos. 2016).
  • Another testosterone booster fails: "It appears that supplementation with a testosterone booster during a resistance training intervention does not increase testosterone, strength or lean body mass when compared to a placebo," scientists conclude (Gonzalez. 2016).

    Cardio - Only "too much" can hurt you. Learn how much is too much!
    Participants were randomly assigned to the placebo (pl) group (n = 6) or the experimental (exp) group (n = 5). Participants and researchers were blinded to group assignments. Blood and saliva samples were collected in the fasted state prior to the intervention (pre), 3 weeks (mid) and 6 weeks (post) to measure testosterone. 1RM squat and bench press and body composition were measured at all three time points. Participants supplemented with the herbal testosterone booster or 500mg of oregano in capsule form twice daily.

    No significant difference was detected between groups for % change in squat (p = 0.792) or bench press (p = 0.429). There was no significant difference between groups for unbound serum testosterone % change from pre to post (p = 1.000) as well as between groups for unbound serum testosterone concentrations (pre p = 0.429, 3w p = 0.622, post p = 0.537). No significant difference occurred between groups for total saliva testosterone % change from pre to post (exp = 16.69 ± 21.22%, pl = 40.48 ± 38.17%; p = 0.329). A significant difference was detected between groups post -test saliva testosterone concentration (exp 728.82 ± 199.37 ng·dl-1, pl 1153.54 ± 357.11 ng·dl-1; p = 0.030) as well as for % weight change (WT%) for the exp group compared to the pl group from pre to mid (p = 0.004, exp mean WT % change -1.44 ± 0.288%. pl mean WT % change 1.76 ± 1.39 %; p = 0.004).
  • Omega-3 for your endurance: 6 weeks of O3FA supplementation is beneficial in improving oxygen uptake kinetics during heavy exercise in normoxic conditions, thus may lead to improvements in exercise tolerance to constant heavy load exercise. However, no improvements were seen in [HHb] or oxygen uptake kinetics in hypoxia following O3FA supplementation (Wiggins. 2016)
  • To guzzle BCAAs all day or not? That is no longer a question with the publication of two recent studies! Learn more!
    BCAA reduces CK, but does not preserve exercise performance: BCAA supplementation may decrease plasma CK concentrations and muscle soreness in response to damaging exercise, but may not impact restoration of muscle function in the acute recovery period, study in ten resistance-trained males (age 21yr, height 175.3cm, and body mass 84.8kg) who were randomized to a supplement (n=5 | 0.1g/lb body weight) or placebo (PLA) (n=5) group or eight days total, w/ 4-day loading period prior to muscle damaging exercise (Escobart. 2016).

     Plasma CK concentrations were significantly elevated above baseline (p<0.05) in both BCAA and PLA groups at 24, 48, and 72 hrs post-exercise. Plasma CK values were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the BCAA group compared to PLA group at 48 (BCAA: 1,245 ±202 IU/L; PLA: 2,198±148 IU/L) and 72 hrs (BCAA: 576± 123 IU/L; PLA: 1,376±246 IU/L). Muscle soreness increased from baseline (p<0.05) in both groups at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hrs, however the BCAA group yielded significantly lower values (p<0.05) at 24 (BCAA: 8.06±0.92; PLA: 9.44±0.56), 48 (BCAA: 6.44±2.00; PLA: 9.54 ±0.74), and 72 hrs post-exercise (BCAA: 3.20±1.19; PLA: 5.86±1.24). VJ, MVC, and jump squat decreased significantly (p<0.05) immediately post-exercise, as well as at 1, 2, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours post, with no differences between groups.
  • Performance benefits of beta-alanine in 110% cycling become very likely, only after 20 wks: In a recent study, scientists tried to determine the effects of 24 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Twenty-five recreationally active males (age 27 ± 4 y, height 1.74 ± 0.08 m, body mass 78.8 ± 11.5 kg) were supplemented with 6.4 g·day-1 of sustained release β-alanine (N=16; CarnoSynTM, NAI, USA) or placebo (N=9; maltodextrin, NAI, USA) over a 24-week period. Every 4 weeks (Week 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24) participants performed the CCT110%, with time-to-exhaustion (TTE) recorded as the outcome measure. Data were analysed using mixed model ANOVA, magnitude based inferences (MBI) and effect sizes (ES).
    Table 1: Likelihood of increases in total time to exhaustion in %-age (Saunders. 2016)
    There was a main-effect of supplement on TTE (P=0.048), although there was no interaction effect (P=0.07). TTE was improved with β-alanine at all time points (Week 4: +5.0%; Week 8: +2.2%; Week 12: +4.4%; Week 16: +8.1%; Week 20: +11.1%; Week 24: +9.0%) while changes in placebo were minimal (Week 4: +1.8%; Week 8: +1.2%; Week 12: -1.3%; Week 16: +0.1%; Week 20: -7.1%; Week 24: +0.3%). MBIs showed possible to very likely improvements across all weeks with β-alanine compared to Week 0; similarly, ES were greater in the β-alanine supplemented group when compared with placebo at all time points (Table 1).
  • Adding GABA to whey makes it more effective: Effect may be mediated by significant increases in GH observed in a recent study with twenty-six healthy male volunteers (26-48 yrs) who were divided into one of two groups; whey protein (WP) group ingesting 10g of whey protein, or whey protein + GABA (WP+G) group ingesting 10g of whey protein and 100 mg of GABA every day for 12 weeks (Sakashita. 2016).
Beware of high dose GABA (>3g) supplementation on empty! Those 100mg of GABA are very unlikely to have any negative effects on your health. With higher amounts, on the other hand, specifically if they are taken on empty and thus rapidly absorbed, side effect can occur. Anxiety, slowed breathing, weakness, they all are probably caused by peripheral effects (not in the brain), but this does not make them desirable, either. So practically speaking this means that you best stick to low / divided doses and if you take more, take it with food.
  • Both groups were subjected to a resistance training twice a week in which they performed three sets of 12 repetitions at 60% of one-repetition maximum on the following exercises: leg press, leg extension, leg curl, chest press and pull down. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 12wk after the training period. Resting plasma GH concentration was assessed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12wk.
    Figure 2: Effects of whey protein and whey + GABA on GH and gains in 12-week study (Sakashita. 2016).
    In WP+G group, plasma GH level in resting state was elevated significantly at 4 and 8wk compared with week 0 (689 ± 203, 661 ± 199 vs. 264 ± 93 pg/mL, p<0.05 respectively). On the other hand, plasma GH level in WP group was elevated significantly only at 8wk as compared with baseline (589 ± 179 vs. 237 ± 86 pg/mL, p<0.05). After 12 wk, change in whole body lean mass was significantly higher in WP+G group compared to that in WP group (1340 ± 465 vs. 146 ± 218 g, p<0.05).
  • Post-workout caffeine vs. pain:  Data from a recent study in sixteen participants suggest that 3mg/kg caffeine can reduce perceived leg soreness (-61%; p < 0.05) following an endurance cycling event (Cardewell. 2016). Therefore, there is potential for caffeine to aid in the recovery from an endurance cycling event.
  • Rhodiala, a functional ergogenic? According to a recent 8-week study,  a Rhodiola mixture supplementat that is used in conjunction with std. exercise training will exhibits its effect on muscle mass and reducing percent of fat mass (Chang. 2016).

    Ashwaghanda may be for gymrats, too.
    "These beneficial effect of Rhodiola mixture supplementation and exercise training might be associated with elevate the testosterone concentration during the eight weeks treatment," the authors write after observing that a 124 mg/kg dosage Rhodiola extract boosted rodents lean and cut their fat mass.

    Needless to say, it's not clear that the same will be seen with the HED of 20 mg/kg will do the same. That warrants further studies.
  • Pepermint oil may have a "small but significant ergogenic effect of peppermint oil in resistance trained men" (Dillon. 2016): Resistance trained men (n =10) were randomized in a crossover design with either peppermint oil or placebo. Following a familiarization week and appropriate warm-up subjects were asked to performed a three repetition maximum (3RM) test on both the bench press and back squat. 15 mins before each testing session subjects were asked to consume the test supplement (50μl pure peppermint oil in 500 mL water) or the placebo (50μl peppermint flavoring in 500 mL water).
    Figure 3: Peppermint oil surprisingly increases strength immediately (Dillon. 2016)
    The results from this study indicated that peppermint oil significantly increased strength performance when compared to placebo (p<0.05). Lower body strength measured using the 3RM back squat significantly increased from 122 ± 22 to 129 ± 26 Kg in response to peppermint oil (t(9)=-3.354, p=0.008). Upper body strength measured using the 3RM bench press significantly increased from 99 ± 21 to 112 ± 27 Kg in response to peppermint oil (t(9)=-3.754, p=0.005).
  • In the short term, hunger and food intake responses to exercise do not differ in lean vs. overweight/obese individuals: Twenty-eight healthy, lean (7 m, 7 f) and overweight (7 m, 7 f) individuals completed two, 8 h trials (exercise and control) in a balanced crossover design. The exercise trial involved a 1 h treadmill walk/run at 60% VO2peak, in a fasted condition, followed by 7 h of rest. The control trial involved 8 h of rest. Standardised meals were provided at 1.5 and 4 h and an ad libitum meal was presented at 7 h on each trial day. Hunger was assessed at 30 min intervals using visual analogue scales. Data were analysed via two-factor (trial x group) mixed ANOVAs and paired samples t-test using SPSS version 22.0 for Windows. Significance was set at P<0.05, values are mean±SD.
    Table 2: No, exercise doesn't "only make you hungry "- fat or lean, no matter what (Douglas. 2016).
    Participant age did not differ between groups (lean 42.9±15.7 vs. overweight 45.5±12.8 y, P=0.62). BMI and waist circumference (WC) were higher in overweight vs. lean individuals (BMI: 29.1±2.4 vs. 22.5±1.7 kg.m-2, WC: 91.6±10.4 vs. 76.8±8.7 cm, both P<0.01). Remaining data are summarised in Table 1.

    Another recent study that found that 20 km running significantly decreased plasma ghrelin concentration and absolute energy intake among well-trained long distance runners, only adds to the anti-"exercise-just-makes-you-hungry" evidence (Kojima. 2016).
  • Study in favor of HIIT for fat loss: Relatively short-term high-intensity low-volume interval training reduces adiposity and increases CRF more than continuous moderate-intensity cycling of equal energy expenditure in overweight/obese young-adult females.

    Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and CRF (VO2peak) were measured in response to 6 weeks of training in previously inactive overweight/obese young-adult females (n=52, 20.4±1.5 yo, 30.3±4.5 kg/m2, 43.5±4.9 %Fat, 27.9±4.7 ml/kg/min) blocked on BMI and randomized to VIG-SIC (n=23) or MOD-C (n=29). Energy expenditure during training sessions was estimated by Keiser 3m cycles (Keiser, Keiser M3 Indoor Cycle, Fresno, California). Habitual energy expenditure was measured objectively using the Actiheart monitor (CamNtech, USA), and energy intake was measured using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24) for a 3-day period pre- and post-training.
    Figure 3: Yes, HIIT triggers greater fat loss, but you cannot expect wonders in 3 days (Higgins. 2016).
    Group changes in body mass, reported energy intake or habitual energy expenditure did not differ (all P<0.05). Regarding total and central adiposity, greater reductions occurred in VIG-SIC (both P<0.05) compared to MOD-C (both P<0.05) in total fat mass (-1.2±1.9 vs. -0.2±1.4 kg, GROUP*TIME P=0.021) and central fat mass (-0.8±1.2 vs. -0.1±0.8 kg, GROUP*TIME P=0.018). CRF (ml/kg/min) improved for both training groups (both p<0.001); however, a significant GROUP*TIME interaction (P=.003) indicated a 2-fold greater increase in VIG-SIC (14.09±10.31%) compared to MOD-C (7.06±7.81%).
  • From 16% to 8% Body Fat in 10 Weeks W/ Crossfit Training - Study | more
    Crossfit has the potential to lower blood pressure: Unsurprising, but not on purpose "Results indicate that regular CrossFit participation can significantly decrease resting systolic BP in healthy adults. However, participants did not express BP or CHD reduction as an intention or perceived outcome of doing CrossFit. Future studies should examine the effects of CrossFit participation on individuals at risk for heart disease by examining their motivational factors and additional indicators of heart health such as blood cholesterol and lipid levels" (Gilmore. 2016).

    This conclusion is based on data from 20 individuals (18-66 yrs, 50% male) who attended CrossFit during the entire 12-month program evaluation study through K-State CrossFit. In the male subjects, the systolic BP decreased from 123.8±14.6 mmHg at baseline, to 119.4±15.5-16.2 mmHg at 2- and 6-months, and 115.9±17.4 mmHg at 12 months. At the same time the mean values for resting HR from 2 months (61.7±8.2 BPM) to 12 months (65.8±9.3 BPM) were not significant (p=.13). 
  • Post-workout ketone supplementation for glucose guzzlers?! There is increased glucose uptake and higher muscle glycogen following ketone supplementation in man, beyond levels achievable by high-dose intravenous glucose infusion, study shows.
    Figure 4: Ketone supplementation easily doubled the insulin response to glucose (Holdsworth. 2016).
    "The additional novel finding of a doubling of endogenous insulin has significant implications for the augmentation of exercise recovery and anabolic metabolism," the authors point out excitedly after observing that the 12 servicemen underwent a validated interval protocol to deplete muscle glycogen consuming randomly higher a control drink + intravenous carbohydrate(Cont-CHO), ketone drink + intravenous carbohydrate(Ket-CHO) or control drink + intravenous saline(Cont-saline) showed 33% higher whole body glucose disposal 125.8(±4.2) vs. 94.7(±3.2) g, for Ket-CHO vs Cont-CHO (p<0.000001), had increased muscle glycogen 246(±32.4) vs 164(±12.5) mmol glycosyl units/kg dry weight of muscle (p=0.017) and doubled insulin levels: 31.1(±5.7) vs 16.4(±2.7) mU/L (p<0.01) for Ket-CHO vs Cont-CHO.

    A noteworthy addendum to the presentation I would like you to know reads: "My supervisor, a co-author is director of a company which markets the ketone supplement used in this study" (Holdsworth. 2016).
  • ZMA impairs the little pro-testosterone effect D-aspartic acid has: Bad news for the supplement industry (Wang. 2016); rodent data suggest that DASP increased the accumulation of DAA in testis and has potential to stimulate the release of total and free testosterone, and GH in rats. ZMA did not appear to affect serum anabolic hormone levels. On the contrary, the combination of ZMA and DASP suppressed the anabolic effects of DASP in rats.
Bottom line: Actually, I could probably do at least another installment like this based on the articles I haven't even read yet. Lets see, what about "Correlations Between Omega-6: Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio and Physical and Cognitive Function in Older Adults" or "Low-Intensity Exercise Counters Cognitive Deficits from Sleep Deprivation" Would you like that? Let me know!
References:
  • Chang, et al. "Effect Of Rhodiola Mixture Supplementation And Exercise Training On Body Composition And Physical Activity In Rats." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 246.
  • Caldewell, et al. "Effect of Caffeine on Recovery from an Endurance Cycling Event." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 64.
  • Dillon, et al. "The Effect of Peppermint oil on Strength Performance in Resistance Trained Men" Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 245.
  • Douglas, et al. "How Exercise Effects Hunger Perceptions and Ad Libitum Energy Intake in Lean and Overweight Individuals." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 222.
  • Escobart, et al. "Effect Of Branched-chain Amino Acid Supplementation On Creatine Kinase, Exercise Performance, And Perceived Muscle Soreness." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 56.
  • Gilmore, et al. "Crossfit & Heart Health: Effects Of Crossfit Participation On Resting Blood Pressure And Heart Rate." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 293.
  • Gonzalez, et al. "The Effects of Testosterone Boosters on Testosterone, Strength, and Body Composition in Young Trained Males." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 52.
  • Higgins, et al. "Sprint Interval And Moderate-Intensity Continuous Cycle Training Differentially Affect Adiposity And Fitness In Overweight Women." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 217.
  • Holdsworth, et al. "The Effects Of Oral Ketones On Human Muscle Recovery Following Exercise." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 163.
  • Katsanos, et al. "Effects of Increased Plasma Branched-chain Amino Acids and Insulin on Muscle Protein Metabolism." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 52.
  • Kinsey, et al. "The Influence of Nighttime Protein Intake on Overnight Lipolysis and Next Morning Fat Oxidation." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 4.
  • Kojima, et al. "The Effect Of 20 Km Running On Appetite Regulation In Long Distance Runners." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 220.
  • Sakashita, et al. "Combined Oral Intake of GABA with Whey Protein Improves Lean Mass in Resistance-trained."Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 54
  • Saunders, et al. "Effect Of 24 Weeks β-alanine Supplementation On High-intensity Cycling." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 55–56.
  • Wang, et al. "Effects Of D-aspartate And ZMA Supplementation On Serum Hormones In Rats." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 252.
  • Wiggins, et al. "Chronic Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation And Oxygen Uptake Kinetics During Heavy Exercise." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 12.
  • Wooding, et al. "Protein Requirements Are Increased In Active Females As Determined By Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2016 - Volume 48 - Issue 5S - p 3–4