|No, no and no. No amino acids = no satiety = no weight loss.|
The satiety shoot-out
According to the researchers from the University of Zurich, the top-dogs, or rather the most satiating among the so-called proteogenic amino acids, which are ...
- L-Leucine (Leu / L)
- L-Lysine (Lys / K)
- L-Methionine (Met / M)
- L-Phenylalanine (Phe / F)
- L-Proline (Pro / P)
- L-Serine (Ser / S)
- L-Threonine (Thr / T)
- L-Tryptophan (Trp / W)
- L-Tyrosine (Tyr / Y)
- L-Valine (Val / V)
- L-Alanine (Ala / A)
- L-Arginine (Arg / R)
- L-Asparagine (Asn / N)
- L-Aspartic acid (Asp / D)
- L-Cysteine (Cys / C)
- L-Glutamic acid (Glu / E)
- L-Glutamine (Gln / Q)
- Glycine (Gly / G)
- L-Histidine (His / H)
- L-Isoleucine (Ile / I)
Additional info: Just to complete the list, I want to add a non-proteogenic amino acid (an amino acid that is not used by the body to "build" proteins) with profound satiety effects. One you actually have heard about several times in the past weeks: Taurine! In 2012 Solon et al. published a study that shows quite conclusively that taurine, once it crosses the blood brain barrier, will reduces food intake, but also locomotor activity in rodents (Solon. 2012). As the scientists point out, These effects are accompanied by the modulation of expression of the "satiety hormone" NPY.
|L-arginine has research to support its use as anti-diabetic weight-loss adjuvants (learn more); and the results of the study at hand suggest that its benefits may be mediated by its effects on the brain & gut.|
"[...] these peripheral mechanical vagal stimuli were dissociated from the amino acids' effect on food intake. [So that it is prudent to assume that] Arg, Lys and Glu had a selective impact on food processing and intake suggesting them as direct sensory input to assess dietary protein content and quality in vivo. " (Jordi. 2013; my emphasis)In other words: L-arginine, L-lysine and L-glutamic acid are not simply going to reduce your cravings they will also tell your body: Hey there's some good quality protein coming in.
Hold on! Where are the proven benefits? I have to admit all that sounds as if it would be of questionable relevance but any SuppVersity reader for whom this is not the first visit to this webpage will probably have read about the surprisingly profound weight loss benefits of L-arginine, which have only recently been tracked down to its interactions with the GLP-1 one of the so-called satiety proteins with far-reaching downstream effects on glucose and fatty acid metabolism (learn more about the fat burning prowess of L-arginine).
As far as glutamic acid is concerned, it may be worth mentioning that Freiberg et al. reported more than 20 years ago that certain glutamic acid derivates can act directly on the cholecystokinin receptor, which is - along the the PYY receptor one of the major "You are full! Now stop eating"-switches of the mammalian body (Freiberg. 1990).
|Figure 1: AUC in response to ingestion of 25g of glucose or water w/ or w/out 150mg/kg lysine (Kalogeropoulou. 2009)|
- Freidinger RM, Whitter WL, Gould NP, Holloway MK, Chang RS, Lotti VJ. Novel glutamic acid derived cholecystokinin receptor ligands. J Med Chem. 1990 Feb;33(2):591-5.
- Kalogeropoulou D, LaFave L, Schweim K, Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Lysine ingestion
markedly attenuates the glucose response to ingested glucose without a change in
insulin response. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;90(2):314-20.
- Jordi J, Herzog B, Camargo SM, Boyle CN, Lutz TA, Verrey F. Specific Amino Acids Inhibit Food Intake via the Area Postrema or Vagal Afferents. J Physiol. 2013 Jul 29. [Epub ahead of print]
- Solon CS, Franci D, Ignacio-Souza LM, Romanatto T, Roman EA, Arruda AP, Morari J, Torsoni AS, Carneiro EM, Velloso LA. Taurine enhances the anorexigenic effects of insulin in the hypothalamus of rats. Amino Acids. 2012 Jun;42(6):2403-10.