|This is not a photo of a study participant from the Bourne study, but it could be.|
The other study, and the one I would like to start with, is about high(er) fat breakfasts. Something the fable of the "super high insulin sensitivity in the AM" would imply must be bad for you. Well, since the myth of AM insulin sensitivity has, just like any myth, only a tiny bit of truth in it (the amount of glucose that can be taken up is higher after an overnight fast; the insulin sensitivity as measured by the amount of insulin that's necessary to do the trick, however, is increased due to the healthy increase in cortisol in the AM), it is no wonder that this is not the case.
- Higher proportion of total and fat energy intake during the morning may reduce absolute intake of energy within the day: an observational study in free-living japanese adults. This is both the title and the main result of a recent study from the School of Public Health at the University of Tokyo (Tani. 2015).
In the study, a total of 119 women and 116 men completed 16-day semi-weighed dietary records. The longitudinal dietary intake data for each participant were analyzed using a mixed model to examine the effect of energy intake at various times of day on subsequent or overall energy intake.
Figure 1: Absolute changes in energy intake in the high fat vs. low fat breakfast condition during breakfast, lunch and dinner (left) and for the complete 24h period (right | Tani. 2015).
This significant and negative association was also observed for proportion of energy intake (%) of fat, but not of carbohydrate or protein, in both sexes. Unfortunately, the proportion of energy intake (%) in the morning meal was negatively associated with overall energy intake (kcal) from the group of meats, fish, and eggs in both sexes. Foods of which you as a SuppVersity reader know that they can promote weight loss / weight maintenance. The intake of junk food like confectioneries and soft drinks, on the other hand, was reduced only in the female participants.
- Watching reality weight loss TV: the effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption What would you guess happens if you watch the Biggest Loser? Are you going to copy them? Starve yourself? Work out like a maniac?
No! At least in those who needed it the most (those happen to be the same people who love the show), the Biggest Loser leads to increased snack food intakes while watching and will make them sad.
Figure 2: Rel. change in body satisfaction and mood
In view of the fact that the increased food intake may be a result of the increase in body satisfaction the young women obviously derived from watching her significantly overweight fellow Americans on the show, it is particularly interesting that especially those women who usually stick to their diets (=have a high dietary restraint) ate food while watching the weight loss program. In conjunction with the previously highlighted findings the study at hand "highlight[s] the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women" (Bourn. 2015). One thing the scientists forget to mention, though, is the absence of long-term data that would confirm that this effect does (a) persist and will (b) help people lose weight / stay lean.
- Bourn et al. "Watching reality weight loss TV: the effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption." Appetite (2015): Accepted article.
- Domoff, Sarah E., et al. "The effects of reality television on weight bias: an examination of The Biggest Loser." Obesity 20.5 (2012): 993-998.
- Hall, Kevin D. "Diet versus exercise in “the biggest loser” weight loss competition." Obesity 21.5 (2013): 957-959.
- Hill, James O. "Is" The Biggest Loser" Really a Big Winner or Just a Big Loser?." Obssity Management 1.5 (2005): 187-188.
- Tani et al. "Higher proportion of total and fat energy intake during the morning may reduce absolute intake of energy within the day: an observational study in free-living japanese adults." Appetite (2015): Accepted article.
- Yoo, Jina H. "No clear winner: effects of The Biggest Loser on the stigmatization of obese persons." Health communication 28.3 (2013): 294-303.