|LLLT has also been shown to improve the appearance of cellulite (Jackson. 2013) | Learn more about what really helps against cellulite in this SV Classic|
But let's return to the study at hand: Manageable and useful, in this case, meant three exercise sessions per week with 30 minutes of aerobic training and 30 minutes of resistance training per session.
"During the intervention period, the voluntaries [sic!] followed a combined exercise training therapy. The protocol was performed three times per week and included 30 minutes of aerobic training and 30 minutes of resistance training per session. The aerobic training consisted of running on a motor-driven treadmill (Movement®) between 70 and 85% of maximal heart frequency, which was determined previously by treadmill submaximal test. The resistance exercise training was composed using exercises for the main muscular groups: bench press, leg press, sit-ups, lat pull-down, hamstring curls, calf raises, Straight-Bar Cable Curl (biceps), triceps pushdown, adductor and abductor chairs [see Table 1]. Training loads were successively adjusted, with volume and intensity being inversely modified and the number of repetitions being decreased to between 6 and 20 repetitions for three sets. The training loads were adjusted in each training session and evaluated according to the increase in participants’ strength. Thus, the training was conducted with maximal repetitions (RM)" (Sene-Fiorese. 2015).For the study, the scientists recruited a total of 64 adult obese women via classic newspapers and magazines as well as electronic media, TV and radio. The inclusion criteria were (i) primary obesity, body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m², (ii) age between 20 and 40 years old. Exclusion criteria were (i) the use of cortisone, anti-epileptic drugs; (ii) history of renal disease; (iii) alcohol intake; (iv) smoking; and (v) secondary obesity due to endocrine disorders. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed by clinical evaluation by physician (endocrinologist).
|Table 1: The scientists a resistance training protocol that had previously been used in Foschini (2010)|
This is a placebo controlled study! I think it's worth highlighting the fact that both groups believed they'd received the treatment, because all subjects had to go to the phototherapy sessions, but the device was actually turned on only for those in the ET-PHOTO, not for those in the ET-SHAM group.In the ET-SHAM group the device which emits light at a wavelength that's too long for the human eye to actually see it was turned off. Thus the subjects in the SHAM = control group received a simulated phototherapy application ... and yes, that's basically the same thing as the "placebo group" in your average supplement study..
|Figure 1: Photo of the Device, Illustration of the Area of Application; Device Information, Irradiation and Treatment Parameters (Sene-Fiorese. 2015).|
"The phototherapy equipment was developed by Laboratory Technology Support-LAT, Center for Research in Optics and Photonics Institute of Physics in São Carlos city at University of São Paulo-USP. The device is a prototype equipment that was submitted for registration as a new patent. The device is composed of four plates made of rubberized material measuring 20 by 20 centimeters (cm) each. Each two plates are connected to an electronic control box. The emitters of Ga-Al-As diode Lasers are distributed in the plate every 2.5 cm, totaling 16 emitters per plate and 64 emitters in total. The prototype is illustrated and irradiation parameters are [mentioned in Figure 1]" (Sene-Fiorese. 2015).As I already hinted at in the previous paragraph, 805 nm is a pretty high wavelength. It's classified as near-infrared (near as in "near, but not in the visible spectrum"), which is too "long" to be seen by human beings... what it was not too long for, though, was to augment the beneficial effects the 48 workouts the subjects performed over the whole study period had on the women's body composition and metabolic health.
|Figure 1: Overview of the changes in body comp and glucose metabolism in both groups (Sene-Fiorese. 2015).|
If we also take into account that the the scientists observed similarly profound differences when they analyzed the subjects adiponectin levels, which decreased by 7% in the SHAM group (bad) and increased by a whopping 20% (good!) in the PHOTO group, it's really hard to argue that the benefits wouldn't be worth the hassle, even though one may question the accuracy of the body fat / lean mass data which was measured with a body impedance, instead of a DEXA device. Since the overall results do support significant additive effects, there's simply no reason to assume that the BIA data would be incorrect. In addition, BIA is actually relatively useful if you measure relative changes in body composition. If you want a correct one-time reading of your body fat, though, I wouldn't rely blindly on what a BIA device says.
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- Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi, et al. "Infrared LED irradiation applied during high-intensity treadmill training improves maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women: a 6-month longitudinal study." Lasers in medical science 28.2 (2013): 415-422.
- Sene‐Fiorese, Marcela, et al. "The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and “metabolic inflexibility” related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment." Lasers in Surgery and Medicine (2015).